Efficient modelling of a wind turbine system for parameter estimation applications

Bekker, Johannes Cornelius (2012-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Wind energy is a very current topic, both locally and internationally. It is one of the most rapidly growing renewable energy sources with installed capacity doubling every three years. South Africa's installed wind energy currently accounts for only 10 MW of the 197 GW worldwide installed capacity. With a 10 TWh renewable energy production target set for 2013 by the South African government, renewable energy projects have gained momentum in recent years. This target, together with data from case studies and reports on resource planning and technical requirements, shows that South Africa is well positioned for the implementation of wind energy sources. All this development in the local wind generation market creates a need for local knowledge in the field of wind energy as well as a need to efficiently model and analyse wind turbine systems and grid interactions for local operating conditions. Although the relevant model topologies are well established, obtaining or deriving appropriate parameter values from first principles remains problematic. Some parameters are also dependent on operating conditions and are best determined from site measurements using parameter estimation methodologies. One of the objectives of this project is to investigate whether the system parameter values can be obtained by performing parameter estimation on the model of a wind turbine system. The models used for parameter estimation processes require fast simulation times. Therefore, basic C-code S-function models of the wind turbine system components, i.e., the wind turbine blade, gearbox and generator, were developed and compiled as a Simulink library. These library components were then used for the parameter estimation process. The developed models, as well as the complete wind turbine system model, were validated and their performance evaluated, by comparing them to existing Simulink block models. These models all proved to be accurate and all showed reductions in simulation times. The principle of performing parameter estimation on C-code S-function models is proven by case studies performed on the individual models and the complete wind turbine system. The power coefficient matrix parameter values of the individual turbine blade model estimated with 100% accuracy for the excited elements. The individual gearbox parameter values all estimated accurately with errors below 2.5%. The parameter values of the individual generator models were estimated accurately for the ABC model, with errors below 4%, and less accurately for the DQ model with errors below 13%. The estimation results obtained for the complete wind turbine system model showed that the parameter values of the gearbox model and generator model were estimated accurately when the system model was excited through a step in angular velocity and steps in amplitude of the stator voltages respectively. A final estimation showed that a combination of gearbox and generator parameter values were accurately estimated when the model was excited through both a step in angular velocity and steps in the amplitude of the stator voltages.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Windenergie is 'n baie aktuele onderwerp beide plaaslik en internasionaal. Windenergie is een van die vinnigste groeiende hernubare energie bronne met die geïnstalleerde kapasiteit wat driejaarliks verdubbel. Suid-Afrika se geïnstalleerde windenergie maak tans slegs 10 MW uit van die wêreldwye geïnstalleerde kapasiteit van 197 GW. Die Suid-Afrikaanse regering het ’n 10 TWh hernubare-energie produksie teiken gestel vir 2013. As gevolg hiervan het hernubare-energie projekte die laaste paar jaar momentum gekry. Hierdie teiken, tesame met die data van gevallestudies en verslae oor hulpbronbeplanning en tegniese vereistes, toon dat Suid-Afrika goed geposisioneer is vir die implementering van windenergiebronne. Hierdie ontwikkelinge in die plaaslike windenergie mark skep ’n behoefte aan plaaslike kennis op die gebied van windenergie, asook die behoefte vir ’n doeltreffende wyse vir die modellering en analisering van windturbine stelsels en netwerk integrasie vir plaaslike werkskondisies. Alhoewel die betrokke model topologieë reeds goed gevestig is, is die verkryging van toepaslike parameter waardes vanuit eerste beginsels steeds problematies. Sommige parameters is ook afhanklik van die werkskondisies en kan die beste bepaal word deur gebruik te maak van parameter estimasie metodologieë vanaf terrein metings. Een van die doelwitte van die projek is om ondersoek in te stel na die moontlikheid om die stelsel parameter waardes te verkry deur parameter estimasie toe te pas op ’n windturbine stelsel. Die modelle wat gebruik word vir die parameter estimasie prosesse benodig vinnige simulasie tye. Daarom is basiese C-kode S-funksie modelle vir die komponente van windturbine stelsels, d.w.s., die wind turbine lemme, ratkas en generator, ontwikkel en saamgestel as ’n Simulink biblioteek. Die komponente in hierdie biblioteek was toe gebruik vir die parameter estimasie proses. Die ontwikkelde modelle sowel as die hele windturbine stelsel model was gevalideer en hul werksverrigting geëvalueer, deur dit te vergelyk met bestaande Simulink blok modelle. Hierdie modelle het almal getoon dat hulle akkuraat is en het almal ’n vermindering in simulasie tyd getoon. Die beginsel van parameter estimasie wat uitgevoer word op C-kode S-funksie modelle, is bewys deur gevallestudies wat op die individuele modelle en die hele windturbine stelsel model uitgevoer was. Die geperturbeerde elemente van die kragkoëffisiënt-matriks arameter van die individuele turbine lemme model se waardes het 100% akkuraatheid geëstimeer. Die individuele ratkas model se parameter waardes was almal akkuraat geëstimeer, met foute kleiner as 2.5%. Die individuele generator modelle se parameter waardes was akkuraat geëstimeer vir die ABC model, met foute kleiner as 4%, en minder akkuraat vir die DQ model, met foute kleiner as 13%. Die resultate wat verkry is van die estimasie wat uitgevoer is op die volledige windturbine stelsel model, het getoon dat die parameter waardes van die ratkas model en die generator model akkuraat geëstimeer word, wanneer die stelsel model onderskeidelik deur ’n trap in die hoeksnelheid en trappe in die amplitude van die stator spannings geperturbeer word. ’n Finale estimasie het getoon dat ’n kombinasie van ratkas en generator parameter waardes akkuraat geëstimeer kan word as die model deur beide die trap in hoeksnelheid en die trappe in die amplitude van die stator spannings geperturbeer word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20171
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