Development of a sustainability index for South African dwellings incorporating green roofs, rainwater harvesting and greywater re-use

Van Der Walt, Johannes Tinus (2012-03)

Thesis (MScEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African water service providers experience major problems with providing adequate water services to consumers. Water service providers in South African urban areas rely on traditional centralised infrastructure, such as bulk supply networks, to provide water services. Alternative supply and stormwater drainage methods should be encouraged to help mitigate these problems. The researcher thus aims to quantify the potential impact that three alternative methods may have on a given dwelling in terms of its dependence on traditional bulk water services. The three alternatives considered in this thesis are the construction of green roofs, rainwater harvesting and greywater re-use. An efficiency of dwelling water use index (EDWI) was developed during this research project. It was designed in such a way as to show what portion of municipal water services could be replaced within the given dwelling by using the proposed techniques. The final EDWI-rating is obtained by using the EDWI-software tool developed as a part of this research. The derived EDWI-rating ranges from 0 to 100, with a rating of 100 indicating a dwelling requiring only the removal of a portion of sewage by a municipality, but no external water supply. Such a dwelling would also not require any water from a municipal network to meet domestic demand and all stormwater from its roof would be utilised within the plot boundaries. Results presented in this thesis illustrate how different geographical regions require different system specifications to obtain optimal EDWI-ratings, thereby lowering their dependence on the respective municipal water services. Validation of the EDWI-system proved difficult as no similar index could be found during the literature review. It was therefore decided to benchmark the EDWI-system using three model dwellings with nine configurations producing a total of 27 analyses. The EDWI-system provides a conceptual foundation for sustainable water services to South African households in serviced urban areas. Future work could further improve the EDWI-system by testing its practical application so that it may be extended to act as a national barometer, used to compare decentralised water services in terms of sustainability.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Suid-Afrikaanse waterdiensverskaffers ondervind groot probleme met die voorsiening van voldoende waterdienste aan verbruikers. Waterdiensverskaffers in Suid-Afrikaanse stedelike gebiede maak staat op tradisionele gesentraliseerde infrastruktuur, soos grootmaatvoorsienings netwerke, om waterdienste te verskaf. Alternatiewe voorsienings- en stormwater dreineringsmetodes moet aangemoedig word om hierdie probleme aan te spreek. Die studie poog dus om die potensiële impak wat drie alternatiewe moontlikhede kan hê op 'n gegewe woning in terme van sy afhanklikheid van die tradisionele waterdienste te kwantifiseer. Die drie alternatiewe moontlikhede wat in hierdie studie ingesluit word is die konstruksie van groendakke, reënwater oes en grys water hergebruik. 'n Huishoudelike water gebruik doeltreffendheids indeks (EDWI) is ontwikkel gedurende hierdie navorsingsprojek. Die indeks is ontwerp om aan te dui watter gedeelte van munisipale waterdienste deur die voorgestelde tegnieke vervang kan word. Die finale EDWI-gradering is verkry deur gebruik te maak van die EDWI-programmatuur wat ontwikkel is gedurende die navorsing. Die afgeleide EDWI- gradering wissel tussen 0 en 100, met 'n telling van 100 wat ‘n woning voorstel wat slegs die verwydering van 'n gedeelte van die riool deur die munisipaliteit vereis, maar wat geen eksterne watervoorsiening benodig nie. So 'n woning vereis dus geen water van ‗n munisipale netwerk nie, en alle stormwater van die dak word binne die erf gebruik. Resultate wat in hierdie studie voorgelê word illustreer hoe verskillende geografiese streke ander stelsel spesifikasies vereis om optimale EDWI-gradering te verkry. Die navorser kon geen indeks kry wat soortgelyk is aan die EDWI-stelsel om dit mee te vergelyk nie. Dit was gevolglik besluit om die indeks te standardiseer deur gebruik te maak van drie model huise met nege samestellings van alternatiewe, waardeur 27 ontledings ontwikkel was. Die EDWI-stelsel bied 'n konseptuele grondslag vir volhoubare waterdienste vir Suid-Afrikaanse huishoudings in gedienste stedelike gebiede. Toekomstige navorsing kan die EDWI-stelsel verder verbeter deur die praktiese toepassing te toets. Die stelsel kan uitgebrei word om ‗n nationale barometer vorm wat gebruik kan word om desentralisasie van waterdienste te meet in konteks van volhoubaarheid.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20138
This item appears in the following collections: