Characterization of the interaction between acetylcholinesterase and laminin : a template for discovering redundancy

Swart, Chrisna (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Apart from its primary function in the synaptic hydrolysis of acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been shown through in vitro demonstrations to be able to promote various non-cholinergic functions, including cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth, differentiation, and amyloidosis. AChE was also shown to bind to mouse laminin-111 in vitro by an electrostatic mechanism. Previous results suggest that the site on AChE recognised by certain monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) might be critical for differentiation. These MAbs were found to inhibit both laminin binding and cell adhesion in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, the structure and characteristics of this site were investigated, using the AChE-laminin interaction as a template as well as a detailed epitope analysis of the MAbs. The interaction sites of AChE and laminin were investigated using phage display, modelling and docking, synthetic peptides, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and conformational interaction site mapping. Docking of AChE with the single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) produced from the phage display showed the major recognition motifs to be the 90Arg-Glu-Leu-Ser-Glu-Asp motif, the 40Pro-Pro-Met-Gly sequence, and the 59Val-Val-Asp-Ala-Thr-Thr (human) motif. Mouse AChE was found to interact with the basic structures Val2718-Arg-Lys-Arg- Leu2722; Tyr2738-Tyr2739, Tyr2789-Ile-Lys-Arg-Lys2793; and Val2817-Glu-Arg-Lys2820, on the 1 G4 domain of laminin. ELISAs using synthetic peptides confirmed the involvement of the AG-73 site (2719-2729). This site overlaps with laminin’s heparin-binding site. Docking showed the major component of the interaction site on AChE to be the acidic Arg90-Glu-Leu-Ser-Glu-Asp95 (omega loop), and also involving the Pro40-Pro-Val42, Arg46 (linked to Glu94 by a salt bridge) and the hexapeptide Asp61 Ala-Thr-Thr-Phe-Gln66. Epitope analysis showed the MAb’s major recognition site to be the sequence Pro40-Pro- Met-Gly-Pro-Arg-Arg-Phe48 (human AChE). The MAbs also reacted with the prolinerich sequences Pro78-Gly-Phe-Glu-Gly-Thr-Glu84 and Pro88-Asn-Arg-Glu-Leu-Ser-Glu- Asp95. These results define the interaction sites involved in the AChE-laminin interaction and suggest that the interaction plays a role in cell adhesion. Despite the in vitro demonstrations of the importance of AChE’s non-classical functions, the AChE knockout survives. Results from this study suggest the possibility of functional redundancy between AChE and other molecules in early development. Using these in vitro findings that AChE is able to bind laminin-111, information on the interaction sites, as well as results from the monoclonal antibody (MAb) epitope analysis, the idea of redundancy was investigated. Docking and bioinformatics techniques were used to investigate structurally similar molecules that have comparable spatiotemporal expression patterns in the embryonic nervous system. AChE has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease, thus molecules associated with brain function and neurodegeneration were also investigated. Molecules with which AChE could be possibly redundant are syndecans, glypicans, perlecan, neuroligins and the low-density lipoprotein receptors and their variants. AChE was observed to dock with growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6) as well as apolipoprotein E3 (ApoE-3) at the same site as the laminin interaction. The AChE interaction site was shown to resemble the apolipoprotein-binding site on the low density lipoprotein receptor, and related molecules, including the low density lipoprotein receptor-related molecule (LRP) and the sortilin-related receptor (SORL1). These molecules, along with apoE, are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Resemblances to the triggering receptor on myeloid cells (TREM1) were also suggested; this is interesting as AChE has been implicated in both haematopoiesis and haematopoietic cancers. Coimmunoprecipitation results, applied to investigate alternative ligands for AChE, confirmed the AChE-laminin interaction in neuroblastoma cells, and also suggested the existence of other binding partners. In conclusion, characterisation of the AChE-laminin interaction sites and investigation of structurally similar sites in other molecules suggests a role for AChE in the stabilization of the basement membrane of developing neural cells and provides a feasible explanation for the survival of the knockout mouse. Furthermore, the demonstrated similarity of the AChE interaction site to sites on molecules, notably the low density lipoprotein receptor family and SORL1 and their apolipoprotein ligands that are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, as well as the possible link to haematopoietic differentiation and cancers, warrants further investigation.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Talle in vitro studies wys dat die ensiem asetielcholienesterase (AChE), behalwe vir sy klassieke rol in die hidrolise van asetielcholien (ACh), ‘n aantal nie-cholinerge rolle vertolk insluitend in sel adhesie, in die uitgroei van neurieten, in differensiering, asook in amyloidosis. Dit is vooraf gewys dat AChE, met behulp van elektrostatiese meganismes, in vitro met muis laminin-111 kan bind. Dit word verneem dat die area op AChE wat herken word deur monoklonale teenliggaampies (MAbs), moontlik ‘n kritiese area is met betrekking tot differensiasie. Dieselfde MAbs is gevind om beide die laminin-interaksie, sowel as sel adhesie van neuroblastoma selle, te inhibeer. In hierdie projek word die struktuur en eienskappe van die betrokke kritiese areas ondersoek deur die AChE-laminin interaksie te gebruik as sjabloon. ‘n Gedetailleerde analise van die teenliggaam epitoop het ook geskied. Met behulp van faag vertoon, modellering en hegting, sintetiese peptiede, ensiem-gekoppelde immunosorbent toetse (ELISAs) en konformasie interaksie area kartering, is die betrokke interaksie areas bestudeer. Hegting van enkel-ketting varierende fragment (scFv) volgordes, verkry vanaf die vaag vertoon, aan AChE dui dat die hoof herkennings motiewe die 90Arg-Glu-Leu-Ser-Glu-Asp motief, die 40Pro-Pro- Met-Gly volgorde, en die 59Val-Val-Asp-Ala-Thr-Thr (mens) motief is. ‘n Interaksie tussen muis AChE en die 1 G4 domein van laminin is gevind. Die interaksie betrek die basiese structure: Val2718-Arg-Lys-Arg-Leu2722; Tyr2738-Tyr2739, Tyr2789-Ile-Lys-Arg- Lys2793; en Val2817-Glu-Arg-Lys2820. Die betrokkenheid van die AG-73 (2719-2729) area by hierdie interaksie is bevestig met ELISA eksperimente wat sintetiese peptiede inkorporeer. Die AG-73 area oorvleuel die heparin interaksie area op laminin. Hegtings eksperimente wys dat die hoof komponent van die interaksie area op AChE die suur volgorde Arg90-Glu-Leu-Ser-Glu-Asp95 op die omega-lus is. Die interaksie betrek ook die Pro40-Pro-Val42, Arg46 (gekoppel aan Glu94 deur ‘n sout-brug) en die heksapeptied Asp61 Ala-Thr-Thr-Phe-Gln66 motiewe. Analise van die MAb epitoop wys die hoof erkennings area as volgorde Pro40-Pro-Met-Gly-Pro-Arg-Arg-Phe48 (mens AChE). Die MAbs blyk ook gunstig te wees teenoor prolien-ryke volgordes soos Pro78-Gly-Phe-Glu-Gly-Thr-Glu84 en Pro88-Asn-Arg-Glu-Leu-Ser-Glu-Asp95. Die areas betrokke by die AChElaminin interaksie is dus gedefinieer en ‘n moontlike rol vir hierdie interaksie in sel adhesie word voorgestel. Die noodsaaklikheid van AChE se nie-klassieke funksies word bevraagteken na die oorlewing van die AChE uitklop-muis. Resultate hier dui op die moontlikheid van funksionele oortolligheid as verduideliking hiervan, spesifiek met betrekking tot molekules betrokke in vroëe ontwikkeling asook in die proses van neurale agteruitgang. Deur gebruik te maak van die in vitro demonstrasies van die AChE-laminin interaksie, informasie verkry ten opsigte van die betrokke interaksie areas, asook resultate verkry vanaf die monoklonale teenliggaam (MAb) epitoop analise, word die idee van funksionele oortolligheid ondersoek. Hegtings en bioinformatika tegnieke is gebruik om molekules met soortgelyke strukture en uitdrukkings patrone in die embrioniese senuweestelses te ondersoek. Ko-immuno presipitasie tegnieke is gebruik om so moontlike alternatiewe ligande vir AChE te ondersoek. Moontlike funksionele oortolligheid van AChE met die volgende molekules is gevind: syndecan; glypican; perlecan; neuroligin; asook die lae-digtheid lipoproteien (LDL) reseptore en hul variante. Hegting van AChE met ’growth arrest-specific’ proteien 6 (Gas6) en die apolipoproteien E3 (apoE3) is gedemonstreer en gevind om dieselfde area as die laminin interaksie te betrek. Die betrokke interaksie area op AChE het ooreenstemminge met die apolipoproteien interaksie area op die LDL reseptor asook met verwante molekules soos die lae-digtheids lipoproteien reseptor-geassosieerde molekuul (LRP) en die sortilingeassosieerde reseptor (SORL1). Hierdie molekules, insluitend apoE, speel beduidende rolle in die patologie van Alzheimer se siekte. Ooreenkomste tussen AChE en die verwekkings reseptor op myeloïde selle (TREM1) is ook voorgestel, die interaksie is van belang siende dat AChE voorheen geassosieer is met beide haematopoiesis en haematopoietiese kankers. Ko-immuno presipitasie resultate bevestig die AChE-laminin interaksie en dui op die moontlike teenwoordigheid van alternatiewe ligande vir AChE in vivo. In konklusie, karakterisering van die AChE-laminin interaksie areas, gepaard met identifisering van struktureel ooreenstemmende areas in ander molekules, dui op ‘n rol vir AChE in die stabilisering van die basale membraan en verskaf dus ‘n geldige verduideliking vir die oorlewing van die AChE uitklop-muis. Die ooreenstemming van die AChE interaksie area met areas op ander molekules (spesifiek geassosieer met Alzheimer se siekte), asook die moontlike assosiasie van AChE met haematopoietiese differensiering en kanker, lê die grondslag vir verdere ondersoeke.

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