The knowledge about HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral treatment of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

Terblanche, Lauren Muriel (2012-03)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many HIV positive patients are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to assist in decreasing the replication of the HIV virus within the body. Adherence to this medication is important, as non- adherence can have serious repercussions. Therefore, the patients’ knowledge of ART and their disease is crucial in ensuring good adherence. A range of barriers to patient education were suspected by the researcher in this community of Delft. The high influx of patients into the clinic everyday minimized consultation time and thereby diminished the opportunity for effective patient education. Consequently, adherence to medication which is closely related to the knowledge and understanding of patients about the disease may be affected. The following research question was therefore explored: What is the knowledge of infected HIV/AIDS patients who are receiving antiretroviral treatment about HIV/AIDS and ART? The objectives set were to evaluate the patient’s knowledge of HIV/AIDS, evaluate the knowledge of ART and to determine whether there are statistical differences between the dependant and independent variables within the study. A quantitative descriptive correlational research design was applied and a convenience sample of n= 200 (8.5%) patients was selected from a population of N= 2349 at the Delft Community Health Centre. A multiple choice questionnaire comprising of mainly closed ended questions with multiple responses was used in individual interviews conducted by either the researcher or fieldworker. Reliability and validity was ensured through the consultation of experts in the fields of research methodology, statistics, HIV/AIDS and the Health Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University. Permission to conduct this study was granted by the Health Research Ethics Committee of Stellenbosch University, the Provincial Regional Head for Primary Health Care Services, as well as the head of the Delft Community Health Centre. Data revealed that the participants were mainly female (n=145/72.5%), and the mean age was 37.5 years. Participants were mostly Xhosa speaking and literate, and the majority (n=112/56%), of the participants had a highest education level between grade 9 and grade 12. Many (n=73/36.5%) of the participants had been living with HIV for more than 5 years, but had been on ART for between 1 to 3 years. Knowledge was assessed by asking questions about various aspects of HIV and ART throughout the study. Scores for the 14 critical questions revealed that (n=0/0%) of the participants had good knowledge, (n=40/20%) of the participants had average knowledge and (n=160/80%) of the participants had poor knowledge. The average score for all participants for all 20 knowledge testing questions was (12.6/63%). The findings showed that the overall knowledge (n=160/80%) is poor. Basic terms and principles of HIV/AIDS and ART were not understood and serious misconceptions regarding the disease were revealed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Baie MIV positiewe pasiënte is op antiretrovirale terapie (ART) om te help met die vermindering van die replisering van die HIV virus in die liggaam. Gebruik van hierdie medikasie is belangrik omdat versuiming van inname ernstige gevolge kan hê. Dus, is die pasiënte se kennis van ART en hul siekte van deurslaggewende belang om volgehoue inname te verseker. ’n Reeks van hindernisse om pasiënte te onderrig, is deur die navorser in die Delftgemeenskap vermoed. Die hoë toestroming van pasiënte na die kliniek elke dag het die konsultasietyd tot die minimum beperk en daardeur die geleentheid vir effektiewe pasiëntonderrig laat verminder. Gevolglik, kan die nakoming om die medikasie te neem wat ’n noue verband toon met die kennis en begrip wat pasiënte het oor die siekte, geaffekteer word. Die volgende navorsingsvraag is gevolglik ondersoek: Wat is die kennis van geïnfekteerde HIV/VIGS pasiënte wat antiretrovirale behandeling ontvang oor HIV/VIGS en ART? Die doelwitte wat gestel is, is om die pasiënt se kennis van HIV/VIGS te evalueer, die kennis van ART te evalueer en te bepaal of daar ’n statistiese verwantskap tussen onafhanklike en afhanklike veranderlikes binne die studie is. ’n Kwantitatiewe beskrywende korrelerende navorsingsontwerp is toegepas en ’n gerieflikheidsmonster van n= 200 (8.5%) pasiënte is geselekteer uit ’n bevolking van N = 2349 by die Delftgemeenskap Gesondheidssentrum. ’n Veelkeusige vraelys wat hoofsaaklik uit geslote vrae met veelkeusige response bestaan het, is gebruik in individuele onderhoude wat deur of die navorser of veldwerker gevoer is. Betroubaarheid en geldigheid is verseker deur oorlegpleging met spesialiste op die gebied van navorsingsmetodologie, statistiek, HIV/VIGS en die Gesondheidsnavorsing se Etiese Komitee van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Toestemming om die navorsing te doen, is gegee deur die Gesondheidsnavorsing se Etiese Komitee van Stellenbosch Universiteit, die Provinsiale Streekshoof vir Primêre Gesondheidsdienste, asook die hoof van die Delftgemeenskap Gesondheidssentrum. Data het bewys dat die deelnemers hoofsaaklik vroulik is (n=145/72.5%) en die gemiddelde ouderdom 37.5 jaar. Deelnemers is meestal Xhosasprekend en geletterd en die meerderheid (n=112/56%) van die deelnemers se hoogste opleidingsvlak is tussen graad 9 en graad 12. Baie (n=73/36.5%) van die deelnemers het met HIV geleef vir 5 jaar, maar was op ART vir tussen 1 tot 3 jaar. Kennis is geassesseer deur vrae te stel oor verskeie aspekte van HIV en ART dwarsdeur die ondersoek. Puntetelling vir die 14 kritiese vrae het aan die lig gebring dat (n=0/0%) van die deelnemers goeie kennis het, (n=40/20%) van die deelnemers beskik oor gemiddelde kennis en (n=160/80%) van die deelnemers se kennis is gering. Die gemiddelde puntetelling vir al die deelnemers van al 20 kennisvrae wat getoets is, is (12.6/63%). Die bevindinge bewys dat die algehele kennis (n= 160/80%) gering is. Basiese terminologie en beginsels van HIV/VIGS en ART word nie begryp nie en ernstige wanopvattinge aangaande die siekte is geopenbaar.

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