Does the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway play a role in mediating the beneficial effects of oleic acid in the heart?

Harris, E. R. (Eurinah Roberta) (2012-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background:Obesity is a growing global burden; current studies have projected the prevalence of obese / overweight individuals to increase to ~1.35 billion by 2030. A number of factors contribute to cardiovascular diseases, of which the focus of this study is what effect an increased level of free fatty acids has on the flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). It has been widely proven that an increased flux through the HBP causes an increase in protein O-GlcNAcylation, which leads to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as an increase in cell death (apoptosis). Methods: For the purpose of this study a cell model was used. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were cultured in 5ml Dulbecco‟s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin. The cells were then exposed to 0.25mM monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The cultured cells were then evaluated to assess the degree ROS production, overall O-GlcNAcylation and cell death (apoptosis and necrosis), using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found that oleic acid causes a significant decrease in ROS production at the 48 hour time point when analysed on the flow cytometer, which indicates that oleic acid is metabolized by the cells in a independent manner. Oleic acid also caused a significant decrease in cell death at all the time intervals. With regard to the HBP, oleic acid activates this pathway but causes downstream cardioprotective effects that do not necessarily occur along this pathway. Conclusion: This study explored whether a monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, is able to act as a novel cardioprotective agent. The in vitro data supports this concept and we showed that it is able to blunt oxidative stress and cell death. It was also found that although oleic acid activated the HBP, it did not mediate its protective effects via this pathway only.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Vetsug is 'n groeiende wêreldlas; huidige studies voorspel dat die voorkoms van vetsugtige / oorgewig individue toe sal neem tot ~1.35 biljoen teen 2030. Alhoewel verskeie faktore tot kardiovaskulêre siektes bydra is die fokus van hierdie studie om die effek van verhoogde vryvetsuurvlakke op die fluks deur die heksosamienbiosintestiese weg (HBW) te ondersoek. Dit is reeds bewys dat verhoogde fluks deur die HBW 'n verhoging in proteïen O-GlcNAsilering lei, wat verder tot verhoogde reaktiewe suusrtofspesies (ROS) vorming aanleiding gee en ook seldood (apoptose) verhoog. Metodes:'n Selmodel is vir die doel van hierdie studie gebruik. H9c2 kardiomioblaste is in 5ml Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) gekweek en gesupplementeer met 10% fetale beesserum en 1% penisillien-streptomysien. Die selle is blootgestel aan 'n 0.25mM mono onversadigde vetsuur (oleïensuur ) vir 24, 48 en 72 uur onderskeidelik. Die gekweekte selle is gevolglik ondersoek vir die graad van ROS ontwikkeling, algehele O-GlcNAsilering en seldood (apoptosis en nekrose), deur van vloeisitometrie en immunofluoresensie mikroskopie gebruik te maak. Resultate: Ons het bevind dat oleïensuur 'n betekenisvolle verlaging in ROS ontwikkeling teen 48 uur soos bepaal deur die vloeisitometer, veroorsaak. Dit wys daarop dat oleïensuur deur die selle op 'n onafhanklike wyse gemetaboliseer is. Oleïensuur het ook 'n betekenisvolle verlaging in seldood by alle tydsintervalle veroorsaak. Met betrekking tot die HBW het oleïensuur hierdie weg geaktiveer maar afstroom kardiobeskermings effekte versoorsaak wat nie noodwendig langs hierdie weg onstaan nie. Gevolgtrekking:Hierdie studie het die moontlikheid van 'n mono-onversadige vetsuur, oleïensuur, om op te tree as 'n nuwe kardiobeskermingsmiddel ondersoek. Die in vitro data ondersteun hierdie konsep en hier is aangetoon dat dit wel oksidatiewe stres en seldood onderdruk. Daar is verder bevind dat alhoewel oleïensuur die HBW aktiveer dit nie die beskermings effekte alleenlik via hierdie weg medieer nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20124
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