Design of an aerodynamic attitude control system for a CubeSat

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dc.contributor.advisor Steyn, W. H. en_ZA Auret, Jacoba en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. en_ZA 2012-03-12T07:53:42Z en_ZA 2012-03-30T10:28:10Z 2012-03-12T07:53:42Z en_ZA 2012-03-30T10:28:10Z 2012-03 en_ZA
dc.description Thesis (MscEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Cape Peninsula University of Technology, in collaboration with Stellenbosch University, is developing a 3-unit CubeSat for a low earth polar orbit. The two main payloads are a camera and a radio frequency beacon. This beacon will be used to calibrate the radar antenna patterns of an antenna of the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory at their base in Antarctica. This thesis describes the development of an aerodynamic attitude determination and control system needed to achieve three-axis stabilisation of the satellite and to perform accurate pointing of the camera. The satellite structure is designed to utilise aerodynamic means of control. It includes four feather antennae for passive pitch-yaw stabilisation and two active aerodynamic roll control paddles. The sensors used are a three-axis magnetometer, ne sun sensor and nadir sensor. Three attitude determination methods are investigated, namely the Triad, Rate Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter algorithm. Apart from the aerodynamic control elements of the satellite, three magnetic torque rods and three nano-reaction wheels are also included in the design. Three control modes for the satellite are identi ed and various control methods are investigated for these control modes. The various attitude determination and control methods are evaluated through simulations and the results are compared to determine the nal methods to be used by the satellite. The magnetic Rate Kalman Filter is chosen as attitude determination method to be used when the satellite is tumbling and a combination of the sun Rate Kalman Filter and the Triad algorithm is to be used when the satellite experiences low angular rates. The B-dot and Y-spin controller is chosen for the detumbling control mode, the aerodynamic and cross-product control method for the three-axis stabilisation control mode and the quaternion feedback control method for the pointing control mode of the satellite. The combination of magnetic and aerodynamic control proved to be su cient for the initial stabilisation of the satellite, but the three nano-reaction wheels are required for the pointing control of the imaging process. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Kaapse Skiereiland Universiteit van Tegnologie, in samewerking met die Universiteit van Stellenbosch, is tans besig met die ontwikkeling van 'n 3-eenheid CubeSat vir 'n pol^ere, lae aard-wentelbaan. Die twee loonvragte van die satelliet bestaan uit 'n kamera en 'n radiofrekwensie-baken. Die radiofrekwensie-baken sal gebruik word om 'n antenna van die Hermanus Magnetiese Observatorium, by hul basis in Antarktika, se radar antenna patrone te kalibreer. Hierdie tesis beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n aerodinamiese ori entasiebepaling en -beheerstelsel wat benodig word om die satelliet in drie asse te stabiliseer en om die kamera noukeurig te rig. Die satelliet se struktuur word ontwerp vir aerodinamiese beheer. Dit sluit vier veerantennas in vir passiewe duik-gier beheer, asook twee aerodynamiese rolbeheer appies vir aktiewe beheer. Die sensors wat gebruik word sluit 'n drie-as magnetometer, fyn sonsensor en nadirsensor in. Drie ori entasiebepalingsmetodes word ondersoek, naamlik die Drietal, Tempo Kalman lter en die Uitgebreide Kalman lter algoritmes. Buiten die aerodinamiese beheerelemente van die satelliet, word daar ook drie magneetstange en drie nano-reaksiewiele ingesluit in die ontwerp. Daar word onderskeid getref tussen drie beheermodusse en verskeie beheermetodes word ondersoek vir hierdie beheermodusse. Die verskeie ori entasiebepalings- en ori entasiebeheermetodes word ge evalueer deur middel van simulasies en die resultate word vergelyk om die beste metodes vir die satelliet se gebruik te bepaal. Die magnetiese Tempo Kalman lter word gekies as ori entasiebepalingsmetode vir 'n tuimelende satelliet en die kombinasie van die son Tempo Kalman lter en Drietal algoritme word gebruik vir 'n satelliet met lae hoektempos. Die B-dot en Y-spin beheerder word gekies vir die tuimelbeheermodus, die aerodinamiese en kruisproduk beheermetode vir die drie-as-stabilisasie-beheermodus en die kwaternioon terugvoer beheermetode vir die rigbeheermodus van die satelliet. Daar word bepaal dat die samespanning van magnetiese en aerodinamiese beheer voldoende is vir die aanvanklike stabilisering van die satelliet, maar dat die drie nano-reaksiewiele benodig word om die kamera te rig tydens die beeldvormingproses. af
dc.format.extent 97 p. : ill.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject CubeSat en_ZA
dc.subject Aerodynamic en_ZA
dc.subject 3-Axis Stabilised en_ZA
dc.subject Artificial satellites -- Attitude control systems en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Electronic engineering en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Electronic engineering en_ZA
dc.subject Artificial satellites -- Control systems en_ZA
dc.title Design of an aerodynamic attitude control system for a CubeSat en_ZA
dc.type Thesis
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University
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