Trafficking of children : the case of South Africa

Sigfridsson, Tove (2012-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The trafficking of children, with the purpose of sexual exploitation, has attained significant attention in the international realm. At present, children‟s human rights are protected by a number of international treaties adopted by the United Nations, which are also ratified by many states. These treaties have a norm setting function which influences domestic laws in the countries that have ratified them. The „1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child‟, the „Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime‟ together with the „2002 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography‟ are important treaties with norm setting functions. These treaties influence international attitudes and policy measures concerning child trafficking. South Africa, the focus of this study, is in the process of creating a comprehensive legislative framework with the aim to protect children and combat child trafficking. Thus, this thesis examines how international treaties have impacted on South Africa‟s domestic legislation with regards to child trafficking. The influence of international treaties and norms on domestic policy and norms regarding child trafficking is illuminated in this study. This analysis builds on a model put forward by Sikkink and Finnemore (1998) of how norms are created by norm entrepreneurs. The assumption is that norms develop in phases through different platforms of organizations and states and these norms eventually become the status quo. This study provides an overview of international and domestic law pertaining to child trafficking as well as a theoretical discussion on the evolution of these norms. A theoretical framework of constructivism and to a lesser extent institutionalism is applied as an analytical tool in order to critically analyse the influence of international treaties on domestic policies in South Africa.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Handel in kinders, met die doel van seksuele uitbuiting, het aansienlike aandag gekry in die internasionale arena. Op die oomblik word die menseregte van kinders beskerm deur 'n aantal internasionale ooreenkomste wat deur die Verenigde Nasies gesluit is, wat ook deur baie state bekragtig is. Hierdie verdrae het 'n standaard normstelllingsfunksie wat binnelandse wette beïnvloed in die lande wat hierdie verdrae bekragtig. Die "1989 Konvensie van die Regte van die Kind", Die Protokol ter Voorkoming, Onderdrukking en Straf van Mensehandel, veral Vroue en Kinders, ter aanvulling van die Verenigde Nasies se Konvensie teen Transnasionale Georganiseerde Misdaad saam met die 2002 Opsionele Protokol tot die Konvensie van die Regte van die Kind op die Verkoop van Kinders, Kinderprostitusie en Kinderpornografie is belangrike verdrae met standaard normstellingsfunksies. Hierdie internasionale verdrae beïnvloed houdings en beleidsmaatreëls oor kinderhandel. Suid Suid-Afrika die fokus van hierdie studie, is in die proses om van 'n omvattende wetgewende raamwerk te ontwikkel wat daarop gemik is om kinders te beskerm en kinderhandel te bestry. Hierdie verhandeling ondersoek die impak van internasionale verdrae op die Suid-Afrika se plaaslike wetgewing met betrekking tot kinderhandel. Die invloed van internasionale verdrae en normes op binnelandse beleid en normes ten opsigte van kinderhandel word in hierdie studie ondersoek. Hierdie ontleding is gebaseer op 'n model van Sikkink en Finnemore (1998) oor hoe norme deur norm-entrepreneurs geskep word. Die aanname is dat normes in fases ontwikkel deur middel van verskillende platforms van organisasies en state en dat hierdie norme uiteindelik die status quo word. Hierdie studie gee 'n oorsig van internasionale en plaaslike wetgewing met betrekking tot kinderhandel, sowel as 'n teoretiese ontleding van die evolusie van hierdie standaarde. 'n Teoretiese raamwerk van konstruktivisme en tot 'n mindere mate institutionalisme word toegepas as 'n analitiese instrument om die invloed van internasionale verdrae op die binnelandse beleid van Suid-Afrika krities te analiseer. Sleutelterme: kinderhandel, internasionale reg, norme, konstruktivisme, beleid, Suid-Afrika.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/19930
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