'n Ekonomiese evaluering van volstruisboerdery in die Oudtshoorn-omgewing

Van Zyl, Pieter Luttig (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2001-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACR: Approximately 10 years ago South Africa, and specifically the Oudtshoorn region was the only place in the world that supplied ostrich products for the international market. Today, South Africa is only one of several countries with commercial ostrich farming. The largest concentration of ostrich farmers in the world is, however, still in the Oudtshoorn region. Increasing competition, limited possibilities to diversify and the so-called price cost squeeze put the emphasis on aspects such as higher productivity and lower production costs. The profitability of ostrich farming, especially in the Oudtshoorn region, should urgently be determined and evaluated as farmers rely heavily on this venture as an only source of income. Decreases in slaughter realisations and slaughtering numbers have necessarily negative financial implications for the farmers, as well as for the community as a whole. Diversification is often considered strategic to avoiding or minimising risk. However, the possibilities to diversify especially to existing alternatives, have proven limited. One sure solution is to increase productivity of ostrich farming. Production parameters like the number of day-old chicks per female, chick mortality and slaughtering realisations were found to vary considerable providing scope for improvement. It is evident that several factors that determine the generated income lie outside the sphere of influence of the individual ostrich farmer. The large variation in production performances renders the industry risky, especially for farmers with liquidity problems. Two questionnaires as well as group discussion techniques were used to evaluate the economics of ostrich farming. Income and costing budget models were constructed on Microsoft Excel to be able to do calculations to the level of gross margin. A complete representative ostrich-farming unit was constructed to do calculations to the level of net farm income. The budget models were applied to (1) representative ostrich production practices for each of the three phases in the production process of ostrich farming, and (2) the representative ostrich-farming unit. The effect of different critical factors on the gross margin and net farm income of ostrich farming were thereafter evaluated. Different scenarios were also evaluated. The results of these analyses are representative of ostrich farming in the Oudtshoorn region. A computer model was developed whereby ostrich farming can be evaluated economically. This model can also be applied to assist individual farmers with their planning.As no research results exist on the economics of ostrich farming at micro level, several questions regarding the economics of ostrich farming prompted this study. These questions were answered using the above-mentioned computer models. The survival of the ostrich industry in the Oudtshoom region with its limited resources depends on a secure lead in technology which will enable farmers to produce products of higher quality, but also at lower costs than the rest of the world.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sowat 10 jaar gelede was Suid-Afrika, en spesifiek die Oudtshoom-omgewing, die enigste gebied in die wereld wat volstruisprodukte aan die wereldmark verskaf het. Vandag is Suid-Afrika egter een van vele lande waar kommersiele volstruisboerdery voorkom. Die grootste konsentrasie van volstruisboere in die wereld word egter steeds in die Oudtshoom-omgewing aangetref. Toenemende mededinging, beperkte moontlikhede om te diversifiseer en die sogenaamde pryskoste-knyptang impliseer dat aspekte soos hoer produktiwiteit en laer produksiekoste aandag moet geniet. 'n Behoefte bestaan om die winsgewendheid van die volstruisvertakking, spesifiek in die Oudtshoomomgewing, nie net te bepaal nie, maar ook te evalueer. Voistruisboere in die Oudtshoom-omgewing steun swaar op die volstruisvertakking vir die generering van inkomste. 'n Verlaging in slagrealisasies en 'n inkorting van slaggetalle het dus noodwendig negatiewe finansiele implikasies tot gevolg, nie net vir die volstruisboere nie, maar ook vir die hele gemeenskap. 'n Strategie om risiko te vermy, mag wees om te diversifiseer, maar die moontlikhede om te diversifiseer, veral na die bestaande vertakkings wat reeds verbou word, blyk egter beperk te wees. 'n Oplossing kan wees om die produktiwiteit van volstruisboerdery te verhoog, met ander woorde om bestaande dinge beter te doen. Groot variasies kom onder andere voor in die getal dagoudkuikens per wyfie, vrektesyfer onder kuikens en ook slagresultate. Groot ruimte vir verbetering bestaan dus. Dit blyk dan ook dat daar heelwat faktore is wat buite die invloedsfeer van die indiwiduele volstruisboer val wat bepalend is vir die inkomste wat 'n slagvolstruis realiseer. Die groot variasies, soos genoem, impliseer verder dat die risiko van volstruisboerdery hoog kan wees, veral vir volstruisboere met likiditeitsprobleme. Twee vraelysopnames en die groepbesprekingstegniek is gebruik om volstruisboerdery ekonomies te kon evalueer. Inkomste- en kostebegrotingsmodelle is op Microsoft Excel gekonstrueer ten einde berekeninge tot op die vlak van bruto marge te kon doen. 'n Volledige verteenwoordigende volstruisboerdery-eenheid is vervolgens gekonstrueer om berekeninge ook tot op die vlak van netto boerdery-inkomste te kon doen. Die begrotingsmodelle is toegepas op (0 verteenwoordigende volstruisproduksiepraktyke vir elk van die drie fases in die produksieproses van volstruisboerdery en (2) die verteenwoordigende volstruisboerdery-eenheid. Die effek van verskillende kritieke faktore op die bruto marge en netto boerdery-inkomste van volstruisboerdery is vervolgens geevalueer. Verskillende scenarios is ook aan die hand van die verteenwoordigende boerderyeenheid beoordeel. Die resultate van hierdie ontledings is verteenwoordigend van volstruisboerdery in die Oudtshoom-omgewing. 'n Rekenaarmodel is in die proses ontwikkel om volstruisboerdery ekonomies te kan evalueer. Hierdie model kan ook aangewend word om indiwiduele volstruisboere met beplanning te help. Heelwat vrae oor die ekonomie van volstruisboerdery het aanleiding gegee tot die aanvang van hierdie studie. Navorsingsresultate oor die ekonomie van volstruisboerdery op mikrovlak bestaan dan ook nie. Deur gebruik te maak van die genoemde rekenaarmodelle is vrae oor die ekonomie van volstruisboerdery beantwoord. Die enigste behoud van die volstruisbedryf in die Oudtshoom-omgewing, met sy beperkte hulpbronne, is 'n stewige voorsprong in tegnologie om nie net beter nie, maar ook goedkoper as die res van die wereld te produseer.

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