Die genetiese verbetering van wyndruifkultivars en wyngisrasse vir 'n markgerigte wynbedryf : nuwe benaderings tot die oeroue kuns van wynbereiding

Pretorius, I. S. (AOSIS OpenJournals, 2003)

The original publication is available at http://www.satnt.ac.za

Article

The widening gap between wine production and wine consumption, the shift of consumer preferences away from basic commodity wine to top quality wine, and the gruelling competition brought about by economic globalisation call for a total revolution in the magical world of wine. In the process of transforming the wine industry from a production-driven industry to a market-orientated enterprise, there is an increasing dependence on, amongst others, biotechnological innovation to launch the wine industry with a quantum leap across the formidable market challenges of the 21st century. Market-orientated designer grape cultivars and wine yeast strains are currently being genetically programmed with surgical precision for the cost-competitive production of high quality grapes and wine with relatively minimal resource inputs and a low environmental impact. With regard to Grapevine Biotechnology, this entails the establishment of stress tolerant and disease resistant varieties of Vitis vinifera with increased productivity, efficiency, sustainability and environmental friendliness, especially regarding improved pest and disease control, water use efficiency and grape quality. With regard to Wine Yeast Biotechnology, the emphasis is on the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved fermentation, processing and biopreservation abilities, and capacities for an increase in the wholesomeness and sensory quality of wine. The successful commercialisation of transgenic grape cultivars and wine yeasts depends on a number of scientific, technical, safety, ethical, legal, economic and marketing factors, and it therefore will be unwise to entertain high expectations in the short term. However, in the light of the phenomenal potential advantages of tailor-made grape varieties and yeast strains, it would be equally self-destructive in the long term if this strategically important “life insurance policy” is not taken out by the wine industry. This overview highlights the most important examples of the way in which V. vinifera grape varieties and S. cerevisiae wine yeast strains are currently being designed with surgical precision on the basis of market demand for the cost-effective, sustainable and environmentally friendly production of healthy, top quality grapes and wine.

Die groeiende gaping tussen wynproduksie en wynverbruik, die verskuiwing van verbruikersvoorkeure vanaf basiese kommoditeitswyn na topgehaltewyn en die uitmergelende mededinging wat ekonomiese globalisering meebring, vereis ’n totale omwenteling in die magiese wonderwêreld van wyn. In die proses om die wynbedryf van ’n produksiegedrewe bedryf na ’n markgerigte onderneming te transformeer, word daar, onder andere, toenemend op biotegnologiese innovasie gereken om die wynbedryf met ’n kwantumsprong oor die formidabele markuitdagings van die 21ste eeu te lanseer. Markgerigte ontwerpersdruifkultivars en -wyngisrasse word tans met chirurgiese presisie geneties geprogrammeer vir die kostemededingende produksie van hoë gehalte druiwe en wyn met relatief minimale insette en ’n lae omgewingsimpak. Ten opsigte van wingerdbiotegnologie behels dit die daarstelling van strestolerante en siekteweer-standbiedende Vitis vinifera-variëteite met verhoogde produktiwiteit, doeltreffendheid, volhoubaarheid en omgewingsvriendelikheid, veral betreffende plaag- en siektebeheer, waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid en druifgehalte. Met betrekking tot wyngisbiotegnologie val die klem op die ontwikkeling van Saccharomyces cerevisiae-rasse met verbeterde gistings-, prosesserings- en biopreserveringsvermoëns, en kapasiteite vir die verhoging van die heilsaamheid en sensoriese kwaliteit van wyn. Die suksesvolle kommersialisering van transgeniese druifkultivars en wyngiste hang van ’n menigte wetenskaplike, tegniese, veiligheids-, etiese, wetlike, ekonomiese en bemarkingsfaktore af, en daarom sal dit dwaas wees om oor die kort termyn hoë verwagtings te koester. In die lig van die fenomenale potensiële voordele van pasgemaakte druifvariëteite en gisrasse, sal dit oor die lang termyn ewe selfvernietigend wees indien hierdie strategies belangrike “lewensversekeringspolis” nie deur die wynbedryf uitgeneem word nie. Hierdie oorsig lig die belangrikste voorbeelde uit waarvolgens V. vinifera-druifvariëteite en S. cerevisiae-wyngisrasse tans geneties met chirurgiese presisie op die basis van markaanvraag ontwerp word vir die koste-effektiewe, volhoubare en omgewingsvriendelike produksie van gesonde, topgehalte druiwe en wyn.

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