Separation of readily biodegradable aminocarboxylate complexes by electrodriven methods

Katata, Lebogang Maureen (2008-03)

Thesis(PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2008.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Aminopolycarboxylic acids (APCAs) are chelating agents widely used to inactivate various metal ions by complex formation in industrial and household applications. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are the widely used agents. Their use is under scrutiny due to their persistence in the environment because they cannot readily biodegrade. This led to the introduction of readily biodegradable agents namely ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) as alternatives especially to EDTA. Therefore, there was an interest to study the separation of EDDS, IDS and other APCAs using a simple, quick and accurate method. Capillary electrophoresis was used to determine the separation and speciation of iminodisuccinic acid with various metal ions at various pH levels. Speciation modelling was also utilized to compare and validate the presence and distribution of metal-ligand species. The obtained CE results were compared with speciation profiles and a reasonable agreement was obtained. The degradation studies at various time intervals for the metal-ligand (ML) complexes of DTPA, S,S-EDDS, IDS and R,S-IDS with various metal ions (Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+) at pH 7 and 9 was evaluated using CE. New peaks were observed in some ML complexes when the pH was changed from pH 9 to 7. Sharp peaks were seen for CuL (L = DTPA, S,S-EDDS, IDS and R,S-IDS), FeDTPA and FeEDDS at both pH s. While small broad peaks were observed for FeIDS, CrL and MnL complexes. CuDTPA and CuEDDS complexes showed a greater stability over some considerable time as compared to CuIDS, CuR,S-IDS and other metal complexes at pH 9. This work also investigated the effect of various cationic electroosmotic flow (EOF) modifiers and counter anions on the CE separation of EDTA, EDDS and IDS as Cu(II) complexes. The performance of the modifiers was evaluated in terms of migration times, resolution and plate numbers. The best results were observed when Tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as modifiers in order to reverse the EOF in the fused silica capillary. This resulted in short analysis time and better peak shapes. The effect of different counteranions attached to EOF modifiers on the separation was also shown. It was also found that the counter anions of EOF modifiers used influences the separation of the complexes. The EOF modifiers namely Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and Tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride (TTAC) were further utilized for the determination of EDTA in South African river waters and industrial effluents. A method for the simultaneous separation of Fe (III) complexed with EDTA, S,S -EDDS and IDS was developed by CE and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The recalcitrant EDTA is used in combination with readily biodegradable analogues like EDDS and IDS in many commercial products. The methodology performance was evaluated in terms of linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and reproducibility for both CE and HPLC methods. The LOD values obtained from HPLC were low when compared with CE. The applicability of both methods was demonstrated for the analysis of cosmetic products such as foam bath and shower cream. The results obtained by both CE and HPLC were found to be comparable and are in good agreement.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Aminopolikarboksiel sure (APCAs) is komplekseer middels wat algemeen gebruik word om verskillende metaal ione te deaktifeer deur kompleks vorming in industriële en huishoudige toepassings. Etileendiamientetraasynsuur (EDTA) en dietileentriamienpentaasyn suur (DTPA) is die mees algemene APCA s. Hul gebruik word deesdae noukerig ondersoek as gevolg van hul volharding in die omgewing. Daar is n intense soektog na bio-afbreekbare agente soos etieleendiamiendisuksien suur (EDDS) and iminodisuksien suur (IDS) wat as plaasvervangers kan dien vir nieafbreekbare EDTA. Daar is dus n behoefte om te kyk na eenvoudige, vinnige en noukeurige metodes vir die bepaling van EDTA, EDTA , IDS en ander APCA s. Kapillere elektroforese (CE) was gebruik vir die skeiding en spesiering van iminodisuksien suur met verskillende metale by verskillende pH s. Spesiasie modellering was ook gebruik om die teenwoordigheid en verspreiding van metaal- spesies te vergelyk. Die CE uitslae was met die spesiasie profiele vergelyk en n redelike ooreenkoms was gevind. Die degraderings studies as n funksie van tyd was met CE bestudeer vir verskillende metal-ligand (ML) samestellings van DTPA, S,S-EDDS, IDS en R,S-IDS met verskillende metal ione (Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Pb2+ en Zn2+) by pH 7 en 9. Nuwe pieke was opgemerk in sommige ML samestellings wanneer die pH van pH 9 na 7 verander. Hoë pieke was vir CuL (L = DTPA, S,S-EDDS, IDS and R,S-IDS), FeEDTA en FeEDDS by alle pH s gevind. Lae, breë pieke was vir FeIDS, CrL en MnL komplekse gevind. CuDTPA en CuEDDS komplekse het n goeie stabiliteit gewys oor ʼn redelike tyd as dit met CuIDS, CuR,S-IDS en ander metal komplekses by pH 9 vergelyk word. In hierdie werk was die effek van verskillende kationiese elektro-osmotiese stroom (EOF) modifiseerders ook ondersoek. Veral die effek wat teen ioone op die CE skeidings het van EDTA, EDDS en IDS asook Cu(II) komplekse was ondersoek. Die effek van die modifiseerders was ondersoek en ge-evalueer in terme van migrasie tye, resolusie en plaat getalle. Die beste skeidingskondisies was bereik wanneer tetradesieltrimetielammonium bromied (TTAB) and setieltrimetielammonium bromied (CTAB) as modifiseerders gebruik word. Hierdie kondisies het ook aanleiding gegee tot korter ondersoek tye en beter piekvorme. Die effek van verskillende teen ioone wat aan die EOF modifiseerders gekoppel was het ook interresante resultate opgelewer. Die EOF modifiseerders setieltrimetielammonium chloried (CTAC) en tetradesieltrimetielammonium chloried (TTAC) was ook gebruik vir die bepaling van EDTA in Suid Afrikaanse rivier waters en industrieel afloop. ʼn Metode vir die gelyktydige skeiding van Fe(III) met EDTA, S,S’-EDDS en IDS was met behulp van CE en hoedruk vloeistof chromatography (HPLC) ontwikkel. Die metodologie was ondersoek ingevolge lineariteit, limiet van deteksie (LOD), limiet van kwantifisering (LOQ) en die herhaalbaarheid van CE en die HPLC metodes. Die LOD waardes verkry vanaf HPLC was swakker vergeleke met die verkry deur CE. Die toepaslikheid van al die metodes was vir die ontleding van kosmetiese produkte soos bad skuim en stortbad room getoets. Die uitslae deur CE en HPLC was vergelykbaar en ʼn goeie ooreenkoms was gevind.

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