Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorSanderson, R. D.
dc.contributor.advisorBuckley, C. A.
dc.contributor.authorJohn, Wilson
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Chemistry and Polymer Science.
dc.date.accessioned2012-02-03T08:23:25Z
dc.date.available2012-02-03T08:23:25Z
dc.date.issued2008-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/19531
dc.descriptionThesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2008.
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study concerns the synthesis, properties and quantitative analysis of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC), a water-soluble polymer used world-wide for potable water purification. The special interest in this polymer is the result of its widespread use and the current lack of adequate analytical methods for it. This is especially important for water treatment organisations. A novel gel permeation chromatography (GPC) method was developed and evaluated for polymer analysis. The scope was extended to determine the presence of unreacted monomer (DADMAC) as well as the percentage active polymer. polyDADMAC was first prepared using a known synthesis method. The product was purified and characterized by GPC and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. New and conclusive evidence of the existence of a five-member pyrrolidine ring system was obtained. A proposed mechanism of polymerization was determined. The activity of the synthesized polyDADMAC was evaluated and it was found to perform effectively as a coagulant. The physical and chemical properties of polyDADMAC were then studied under simulated water treatment conditions. The polymer reaction with chlorine revealed the formation of trihalogenated methane compounds (THMs). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to conclusively identify the formation of chloroform. The polymer stability under different conditions of heat exposure, UV radiation and pH variations was studied. GPC results indicated that polyDADMAC is a very stable polymer and undergoes structural change only when subjected to extremes of pH, temperature and UV conditions. Results of a short study on microbial degradation indicated growth of the cultures, and subsequent polymer degradation. Reactions of polyDADMAC were concluded with a study of the impact of ozone on polyDADMAC. GPC results indicated a significant change in the ozonated polymer peak profile. Analytical methods to determine polyDADMAC residues in water were reviewed and critically evaluated. Methods based on complex formation/spectroscopy suffered from severe limitations and produced no meaningful results, contrary to claims made by previous researchers. Colloid titration based on an established method was promising but required extensive modification for quantitative analysis. Finally four novel methods were developed, including: solid phase extraction, membrane filtration-GPC, the HACH complexation method, and a GPC method with indirect UV detection. The study is concluded with a chemical risk assessment that indicated minimal human health risks associated with the production and use of polyDADMAC.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Hierdie studie behels die sintese, eienskappe en kwantitatiewe analise van polidiallielmetielammoniumchloried (polyDADMAC), 'n wateroplosbare polimeer wat wêreldwyd vir drinkwatersuiwering gebruik word. Die belangstelling in hierdie spesifieke polimeer is as gevolg van die wydverspreide gebruik daarvan en die feit dat daar tans onvoldoende eenvoudige analitiese metodes daarvoor bestaan. Dit is veral belangrik vir waterbehandelingsorganisasies. 'n Nuwe gelpermeasiechromatografie (GPC) metode is ontwikkel en geevalueer vir die analise van hierdie polimeer. Die omvang van die studie is later uitgebrei om die teenwoordigheid van ongereageerde monomeer (DADMAC) asook die persentasie aktiewe polimeer te bepaal. polyDADMAC is eers volgens 'n bekende sintesemetode berei. Die produk is gesuiwer en gekarakteriseer m.b.v. GPC en 13C-KMR. Nuwe bewyse vir die bestaan van 'n vyflid pirollidoonringsisteem is verkry. 'n Meganisme vir hierdie polimerisasie metode is vasgestel. Die aktiwiteit van die bereide polyDADMAC is geevalueer en daar is bevind dat dit effektief as koaguleermiddel optree. Daarna is die chemiese en fisiese eienskappe van polyDADMAC onder gesimuleerde waterbehandelingskondisies bepaal. polyDADMAC het met chloor gerageer om trihalogeneerde metaanverbindings (THMs) te vorm. Gaschromatografie–massa-spektrometrie (GC–MS) is gebruik om die ontstaan van chloroform te bevestig. Daarna is die stabiliteit van die polimeer onder verskei reaksiekondisies bepaal: hitte, UV-bestraling, en pH. GPC-resultate het aangeduiui dat polyDADMAC baie stabiel is en ondergaan strukturele veranderings slegs onder uiterste kondisies van pH, temperatuur en UV. 'n Kort studie van die effek van mikro-organismes op polyDADMAC het egtermikrobiese kultuurgroei met die gevolglike afbreek van die polimeer getoon. Resultate van 'n studie van die impak van osoon op polyDADMAC het getoon dat daar 'n groot verandering in die GPC-profiel van die ge-osoneerde vorm van die polimeer was. Verdere analitiese metodes wat al gebruik is om polyDADMAC residue in water te bepaal, is uitgevoer en krities geevalueer. Metodes gebasseer op kompleksvorming/ spektroskopie het erge beperkings gehad en het nie betekenisvolle resultate gelewer nie. Dit was in teenstelling met wat voorheen deur ander navorsers bevind is. 'n Kolloiedtitrasie gebasseer op 'n bestaande metode het goeie resultate gelewer maar het omvattende veranderings benodig om kwantitatiewe resultate te lewer. Ten slotte is vier nuwe metodes ontwikkel: soliede fase-ekstraksie, membraanfiltrasie-GPC, die HACH-komplekseringsmetode, en 'n GPC-metode met indirekte UV-waarneming.. Die studie is afgesluit met 'n bepaling van die chemiese risiko wat poly DADMAC vir die gesondheid van die mens inhou. Daar is tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die produksie en gebruik van poly DADMAC slegs‘n minimum gesondheidsrisiko inhou.af_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
dc.subjectWater-soluble polymersen_ZA
dc.subjectWater -- Purificationen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertations -- Polymer scienceen_ZA
dc.subjectTheses -- Polymer scienceen_ZA
dc.titleSynthesis, properties and analysis of polydadmac for water purificationen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record