Molecular phylogenetic relationships within the subtribe Disinae (Orchidaceae) and their taxonomic, phytogeographic and evolutionary implications

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dc.contributor.advisor Bellstedt, Dirk U.
dc.contributor.advisor Linder, H. Peter
dc.contributor.author Bytebier, Benny (Benny Leopold Germaine)
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Biochemistry. en
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-01T08:57:27Z
dc.date.available 2012-02-01T08:57:27Z
dc.date.issued 2007-03
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/19441
dc.description Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Twenty five years after the last major morphological revision, phylogenetic relationships were inferred on the basis of a new DNA dataset for the African orchid subtribe Disinae, which includes the large genus Disa and the small genus Schizodium. One nuclear gene region (ITS) and two plastid gene regions (trnLF and matK) were sequenced for 136 ingroup, representing 70% of all known Disinae species, as well as for 7 outgroup taxa. The combined data matrix contained 4094 characters and was analysed using parsimony and Bayesian inference. The generic status of Schizodium can no longer be supported, as it is deeply embedded within the genus Disa. Furthermore, the currently recognised subgenera do not reflect the phylogenetic relationships. Several of the currently recognised sections are monophyletic, others contain misplaced elements, while some are polyphyletic. These results necessitate a re-classification of the Disinae. A monotypic subtribe Disinae and a subdvision of Disa into eighteen sections is formally proposed. These sections are monophyletic, well-supported, morphologically distinguishable and are delimited to maximize the congruence with the previous classification. All currently known species are enumerated and assigned to sections. Likelihood optimisation onto a dated molecular phylogeny is subsequently used to explore the historical biogeography of Disa, as well as of three other Cape lineages (Irideae p.p., the Pentaschistis clade and Restionaceae), to find out where these lineages originated and how they spread through the Afrotemperate region. Three hypotheses have been proposed: (i) a tropical origin with a southward migration towards the Cape; (ii) a Cape origin with a northward migration into tropical Africa and (iii) vicariance. None of these hypotheses, however, has been thoroughly tested. In all cases, tropical taxa are nested within a predominantly Cape clade and there is unidirectional migration from the Cape into the Drakensberg and from there northwards into tropical Africa. Dating estimates show that the migration into tropical East Africa has occurred in the last 17 million years, consistent with the Mio-Pliocene formation of the mountains in this area. The same technique is then utilised to reconstruct the temporal occurrence of ancestral ecological attributes of the genus Disa. The first appearance of species in the grassland and savanna biomes, as well as in the subalpine habitat, are in agreement with the existing, reliable geological and paleontological information. This suggests that phylogenies can be used to date events for which other information is lacking or inconclusive, such as the age of the fynbos biome and the start of the winter rainfall regime in southern Africa. The results indicate that these are much older than what is currently accepted and date back to at least the Oligocene. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vyf-en-twintig jaar na die laaste groot morfologiese hersiening, is die filogenetiese verwantskappe van die Afrika orgideë subtribus Disinae, wat die groot genus Disa en die klein genus Schizodium insluit, in hierdie studie op grond van ‘n nuwe DNA datastel afgelei. Daar is van 136 binnegroep, wat 70% van alle bekende Disinae spesies verteenwoordig, sowel as sewe buitegroep taksa geenopeenvolgings van een nukleêre geen streek (ITS) en twee plastiedgeen streke (trnLF en matK) bepaal. Die gekombineerde data matriks het 4094 karakters bevat en is met die parsimonie en Bayesian metodes ontleed. Die generiese status van Schizodium kan nie hieruit ondersteun word nie, en is diep ingebed binne die genus Disa. Die huidiglik aanvaarde subgenera word ook nie deur hierdie filogenie ondersteun nie. Verskeie van die huidiglik herkende seksies is bevind om monofileties te wees, ander bevat verkeerd geplaasde spesies, terwyl ander polifileties blyk te wees. ’n Monotipiese subtribus Disinae en ’n onderverdeling van Disa in agtien seksies word formeel voorgestel. Dié seksies is monofilities, goed ondersteun, morfologies onderskeibaar en omskryf om maksimaal ooreen te stem met die vorige klassifikasie. Alle huidiglik bekende spesies word gelys en toegewys aan seksies. Waarskynlikheidsoptimalisering op ’n gedateerde molekulêre filogenie is dan gebruik om die historiese biogeografie van Disa te ondersoek, tesame met drie ander Kaapse groepe (Irideae p.p., die Pentaschistis klade en Restionaceae), om te bepaal waar hierdie groepe hulle oorsprong gevind het en hoe hulle na die “Afrotemperate“ streek versprei het. Drie hipoteses word voorgestel: (i) ’n tropiese oorsprong met ’n suidwaartse migrasie na die Kaap; (ii) ’n Kaapse oorsprong met ’n noordwaartse migrasie na tropiese Afrika, en (iii) vikariansie. Geen van hierdie hipoteses is egter vantevore deeglik getoets nie. In alle gevalle is bevind dat die tropiese taksa oorwegend binne ’n Kaapse klade gesetel is, en dat daar ’n eenrigting migrasie is van die Kaap na die Drakensberge en van daar noordwaarts na tropiese Afrika. Dateringsskattings toon dat die migrasie na tropiese Oos-Afrika in die laaste 17 miljoen jaar plaasgevind het, ooreenstemmend met die Mio-Plioseen vorming van die berge in die area. Dieselfde tegniek is daarna aangewend om die temporale voorkoms van voorvaderlike ekologiese eienskappe van die genus Disa te rekonstrueer. Die eerste voorkoms van die spesies in die grasveld en savanna biome, sowel as die subalpiene habitat, is in ooreenstemming met bestaande, betroubare geologiese en paleontologiese informasie. Dit suggereer dat filogenieë gebruik kan word om gebeurtenisse te dateer waarvoor daar informasie ontbreek of nie beslissend is nie, soos die ouderdom van die Fynbos bioom en die begin van die winterreënval stelsel in suider-Afrika. Die resultate dui daarop dat dit heelwat ouer is as wat tans aanvaar word en terugdateer na ten minste die Oligoseen. af
dc.format.extent x, 116 leaves : ill.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
dc.subject Orchids -- Genetics en_ZA
dc.subject Plants -- Migration -- South Africa en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Biochemistry en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Biochemistry en_ZA
dc.title Molecular phylogenetic relationships within the subtribe Disinae (Orchidaceae) and their taxonomic, phytogeographic and evolutionary implications en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University en_ZA


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