Benutting van sandspel in die eksplorering van die leefwêreld van adolessente volgens die gestaltbenadering in maatskaplike werk
Thesis (M Social Work (Social Work))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.
Goal: The aim of this study is to use the Gestalt approach to explore, and to make use of sandplay to describe and observe the world of the adolescent client, in order to lead the social worker to gain insight and understanding to the world of the adolescent. This study was done because the researcher observed that sandplay achieved very positive effects with children, adolescents and adults. This study was motivated by the desire to provide recommendations to the social workers in practice about the value and use of sandplay in the exploration of the world of the adolescent The literature study focussed on a) the adolescent life-phase in order to determine the specific developmental aspects and characteristics of the adolescent, b) to define the possibilities of sandplay as an exploration medium, as well as c) assessing the Gestalt approach as orientation theory and as practice theory with sandplay. In this research, a qualitative methodology was used combined with a case-study research design. Sandplay was used as a medium for exploration with three adolescent participants. They were selected by means of a non-probability sampling. The researcher used detailed, in-depth, data gathering methods which included six measuring instruments. These instruments included: a standardised questionnaire to give an indication of personality-traits of the participants; two questionnaires to determine the behaviour, thought patterns and domestic circumstances of the participants; semi-structured interview-schedules to explore the sandtrays of the participants; photographs to accurately capture and record the sandtrays; as well as observations recording the behaviour and non-verbal communication of the participants. The researcher concludes that, according to the Gestalt-approach, exploration with sandplay is an effective method to explore the world of the adolescent. This method provides adequate information to the social worker to understand the world of the adolescent client. Sandplay, according to the Gestalt approach, contributes value to social work practice, because it enhances the effectiveness of exploration and intervention. Sandplay provides the social worker with comprehensive information about the adolescent, and enables the social worker to identify the core problem of the adolescent expeditiously. Sandplay involves the adolescent in a sensory, cognitive and emotional manner, which contributes to more information being exposed that leads to more effective interventions. This method is also novel, interesting and challenging to the social worker and the adolescent. The researcher recommends sandplay for the exploration of the world of the adolescent be preceded by establishing a therapeutic relationship with the adolescent. Once a relationship is established a number of sandtrays can be built, and thoroughly explored. The first sandtray should be non-directive. Directive sandtrays are subsequently recommended to explore specific themes and to handle trauma and/or issues which the adolescent may experience. It is also recommended that the social worker utilizes hypotheses, which can be postulated from the symbolic meanings of miniatures, as well as interpretations from other sandplay research in his/her exploration of sandtrays. The social worker, who uses sandplay to explore the world of the adolescent according to the Gestalt approach, should be knowledgeable about sandplay, the symbolic meaning of miniatures, sandplay research and the Gestalt approach as orientation theory and practice theory. This study was done with three Afrikaans-speaking adolescent foster children, and the findings may not apply to other populations. Additional research needs to be done with a wider sample of adolescents, that covers different cultures, language and domestic backgrounds.