Polar ordering of guest molecules in host-guest inclusion complexes

Bezuidenhout, Charl Xavier (2011-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: 2,7-dimethylocta-3,5-diyne-2,7-diol forms inclusion complexes with various guests molecules, where the guest molecules are polar-ordered. A Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) search revealed ten inclusion complexes where the guest molecules were polar-ordered. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) computational methods (in the absence of the host), we evaluated the intra-channel and lateral guest-guest interactions between the guest molecules. Two polar-ordered inclusion complexes ((1,4,7-cyclohexane-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxonane)·CHCl3 and (2,4,6-(endolongifolyl)-1,3,5-trioxane)·CDCl3) were singled out in the CSD search for further studies along with 2,7-dimethylocta-3,5-diyne-2,7-diol. Synthesis of any 1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxonane and 1,3,5-trioxane derivatives was attempted to establish whether the polar-ordering ability extends into the family of compounds. We managed to produce three new polar-ordered inclusion complexes with 2,7-dimethylocta-3,5-diyne-2,7-diol (ClC(CH3)3, BrC(CH3)3 and IC(CH3)3), thus extending the series to six guest polar-ordered systems. We were only able to synthesise 1,4,7-cyclohexane-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxonane and produce the CHCl3 inclusion complex and one new polar-ordered inclusion complex (CHBr3). Three 1,3,5-trioxanes was synthesised (the cyclohexyl, cyclohex-3-en-1-yl and cyclopentyl derivatives), which did not include any solvents. However, these 1,3,5-trioxanes also form polar-ordered crystals. These compounds and inclusion complexes were analysed by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine their crystal structures. All the crystal structures could be solved and refined to adequate accuracy (except for 2,4,6-tri(cyclopentyl)-1,3,5-trioxane) with no disorder of the guest molecules (where applicable) and their polar-ordering property investigated. Due to their vast molecular differences, these compounds were studied separately by means of visual crystal structure analysis and computational modelling techniques (Density functional theory, molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics and molecular quench dynamics).

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 2,7-dimetielokta-3,5-diyn-2,7-diol vorm insluitingskomplekse met verskeie molekules as gaste, waar die gas-molekules polêr georden is. 'n Cambridge Struktuur Databasis (CSD) soektog lewer tien insluitings komplekse waarvan die gas-molekules polêr georden is. Deur gebruik te maak van Digtheidsfunksionele teorie (DFT) berekeninge (in die afwesigheid van die gasheer) het ons die inter-kanaal en wedersydse gas-gas interaksies tussen die gas molekules geëvalueer. Twee polêr geordende insluitingskomplekse ((1,4,7-sikloheksaan-1,2,4,5,7,8-heksaoksonaan)·CHCl3 en (2,4,6-(endolongifolyl)-1,3,5-trioksaan)·CDCl3) is uitgesonder uit die CSD soektog vir verdere studies saam met 2,7-dimetielokta-3,5-diyn-2,7-diol. Aanslag was gemaak om enige 1,2,4,5,7,8-heksaoksonaan en 1,3,5-trioksaan derivate te sintetiseer en vas te stel of die polêre ordensvermoë oor die familie van verbindings strek. Ons het daarin geslaag om drie nuwe polêr geordende insluitingskomplekse op te lewer met 2,7-dimetielokta-3,5-diyn-2,7-diol (Cl(CH3)3, BrC(CH3)3 en I(CH3)3), en sodoende die reeks uitgebrei na ses gaste wat polêr geordende insluitingskomplekse vorm. Net 1,4,7-sikloheksaan-1,2,4,5,7,8-heksaoksonaan kon gesintetiseer word en dit lewer twee polêr geordende insluitingskomplekse (CHCl3 en CHBr3 (nuut)). Drie 1,3,5-trioksane is gesintetiseer (die sikloheksiel, sikloheks-3-een-1-iel en siklopentiel derivate) en het nie enige oplosmiddels (gaste) ingesluit nie. Nietemin vorm hiedie 1,3,5-trioksane ook polêr geordende kristalle. Hierdie verbindings en insluitingskomplekse is geanaliseer deur middel van enkelkristal X-straal diffraksie om hul kristalstrukture te bepaal. Alle kristalstrukture was opgelos en verwerk tot voldoende akkuraatheid (behalwe vir 2,4,6-tri(siklopentiel)-1,3,5-trioxane) met geen wanorde in die gas molekuul posisies nie (waar van toepassing) en hul polêre ordensvermoë is ondersoek. As gevolg van groot verskille in hul molekulêre strukture, is hierdie verbindings afsonderlik bestudeer deur middel van molekulêre modellerings metodes (Digtheidsfunksionele teorie, molekulêre meganika, molekulêre dinamika en molekulêre stakings dinamika).

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/18107
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