Investigating ligands of cardiac Myosin-Binding Protein C (cMyBPC) as potential regulators of contractility and modifiers of hypertrophy.

Swanepoel, C. C. A. (2011-12)

Thesis (PhD ) -- Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Bibliography

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The regulation of cardiac contractility is dependent on cooperative interaction between the thick and thin filaments, as well as their accessory proteins, within the cardiac sarcomere. Alteration in cardiac contractility due to a defective sarcomere typically results in cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). One of the sarcomeric genes frequently mutated and which accounts for the second most common form of HCM encodes cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBPC), a thick filament accessory protein whose physiological function is poorly understood. However, studies have implicated cMyBPC in thick filament structure and function as well as in the regulation of contractility. The N-terminal region of cMyBPC houses the cMyBPC-motif, which contains three phosphorylation sites, between domains C1 and C2. The hierarchical phosphorylation of this motif, by first calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CamKII) and then by cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (PKA), is cardinal in the role of cMyBPC in the regulation of cardiac contractility in response to ß-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, phosphorylation of this motif is inversely correlated to cMyBPC proteolysis and has been shown to be cardioprotective. Thus, proteins that have an effect on cMyBPC function or turnover may also influence filament structure and hence affect contractility, which, in turn, affects the structure of the cardiac muscle. One such protein is the Copper metabolism MURR1-domain containing protein 4 (COMMD4), which was previously identified as a novel interactor of cMyBPC during a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library screen in our laboratory. COMMD4 binds specifically to the cMyBPC motif in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The exact function of COMMD4 is unknown; however, it is a member of the COMM family of proteins that has been linked to copper metabolism as well as to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPS). Intriguingly, recent studies have shown that the UPS plays a role in cMyBPC-derived HCM, while dietary copper depletion is also known to cause cardiac hypertrophy. Based on these findings, COMMD4 was considered an interesting candidate regulator of sarcomeric function and contractility, and by extension, a candidate modifier of cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, the aim of the present study was two-fold. Firstly, COMMD4 was used as bait in a Y2H library screen to determine its distal ligands, with a view to further elucidate its function, particularly in the context of MyBPC functioning, and identified interactors were subjected to further in vitro and in vivo verification studies. Also, the phosphorylation-dependent nature of the interaction between COMMD4 and cMyBPC was further investigated using a domain/phosphorylation assay. Secondly, COMMD4 and its Y2H-identified putative interactors were assessed as possible modifiers of hypertrophy in a family-based association study, using three cohorts of South African HCM-families in which one of three founder mutations segregate. Six putative interactors, viz. cardiac actin (ACTC1), Down syndrome critical region 3 (DSCR3), enolase 1 (ENO1), F-box and leucine rich repeat protein 10 (FBXL10), legumain (LGMN) and sorting nexin3 (SNX3) were identified and confirmed as COMMD4 interactors using Y2H analyses, followed by in vitro and in vivo co-immunoprecipitation and 3D co-localisation assays. Moreover, as some COMMD protein family members and the newly-identified interactors of COMMD4 have previously been linked to the UPS, the functional effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of COMMD4 on cMyBPC turnover was also investigated. Data revealed accumulation of cMyBPC in the endosomes upon COMMD4 knockdown, suggesting a functional role for COMMD4 in the turnover of cMyBPC. In addition, association analysis revealed strong evidence of association between various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SNX3 and a number of hypertrophy traits, thus suggesting a role for SNX3 as a candidate modifier of hypertrophy in HCM. No evidence of association was observed for any of the genes encoding the other COMMD4 interactors implicated in protein turnover. The present study demonstrates that COMMD4, a little understood member of the COMM family of proteins, binds to the cMyBPC motif of cMyBPC in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, based on the functions of its protein interactions, we hypothesise that COMMD4 plays a role in protein trafficking and turnover. More specifically, COMMD4 seems to help to facilitate formation of protein complexes with the Skp1-Cul1-Fbxl (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase and probably helps to stabilise the target substrate for subsequent ubiquitin-conjugation. As COMMD4 seems to affect the protein turnover of cMyBPC and possibly other sarcomeric proteins, such as actin, these results establish a novel association between the sarcomere, HCM and the UPS. In addition, identification of SNX3 as a hypertrophy modifier will allow for the improved understanding of HCM patho-aetiology. SNX3 thus adds to the growing body of sarcomeric modifier genes, which, eventually, may improve risk profiling in HCM. Furthermore, as genetic modifiers appear sufficient to completely prevent disease expression in some HCM carriers, the identification of SNX3 may point to the protein turnover pathway as a potential new target for intervention.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die regulering van kardiale kontraktiliteit is afhanklik van die koöperatiewe interaksie tussen die dik en dun filamente, asook hul geassosieerde proteïene, in die kardiale sarkomeer. Veranderinge in kardiale kontraktiliteit as gevolg van 'n defektiewe sarkomeer lei tot kardiomiopatieë soos hipertrofiese kardiomiopatie (HKM). Een van die sarkomeriese gene wat dikwels gemuteer is en wat verantwoordelik is vir die tweede algmeenste vorm van HKM,is dié van kardiale miosien-bindingsproteïen C (cMyBPC),'n proteïen geassosieer met die dik filament waarvan die fisiologiese funksie nog nie goed bekend is nie. Studies betrek cMyBPC in dik filament struktuur en funksie asook in die regulering van kontraktiliteit. Die N-terminale gebied van cMyBPC huisves die cMyBPC-motief, wat drie fosforilerings-setels tussen domeine C1 en C2 bevat. Die hiërargiese fosforilering van hierdie motief, eerstens deur kalsium/kalmodulien-gereguleerde kinase II (CamKII), gevolg deur siklies AMP-geaktiveerde proteïen kinase (PKA), is kardinaal in die rol van cMyBPC in die regulering van kardiale kontraktiliteit in reaksie op ß-adrenergiese stimulasie. Verder, fosforilering van hierdie motief is omgekeerd gekorreleer aan cMyBPC proteolise en is ook bewys om kardiobeskermend te wees. Dus, proteïene wat 'n uitwerking het op die funksie van cMyBPC mag ook filament struktuur en kontraktiliteit beïnvloed, wat op hul beurt die struktuur van die kardiale spier affekteer. Die koper metabolisme MURR1-domein bevattende protein 4 (COMMD4), was voorheen geïdentifiseer as 'n nuwe bindingsgenoot van cMyBPC tydens gis twee-hibried (G2H) analise in ons laboratorium. COMMD4 bind spesifiek aan die cMyBPC motief in 'n fosforilasie afhanklike wyse. Die presiese funksie van COMMD4 is onbekend; maar dit is 'n lid van die COMM domein familie van proteine wat geassosieerd is met koper metabolisme sowel as die “ubiquitin” proteosoom pad (UPP). Interesant genoeg, onlangse studies het bewys dat die UPP 'n rol speel in cMyBPC-afgeleide HKM, terwyl koper uitputting in die dieet ook bekend is om kardiale hipertrofie te veroorsaak. Gebaseer op hierdie bevindinge was COMMD4 oorweeg as 'n interessante kandidaat reguleerder van sarkomeries funksie en kontraktiliteit, asook 'n kandidaat modifiseerder van kardiale hipertrofie. Dus, die doel van die huidige studie was tweeledig. Eerstens, was COMMD4 as aas gebruik in 'n G2H biblioteek sifting om sy distale ligande te bepaal, met die oog om verdere lig te werp op sy funksie, veral in die konteks van MyBPC funksionering, en geïdentifiseerde bindingsgenote was onderwerp aan verdere 'in vitro’ en 'in vivo’ verifikasie studies. Daarbenewens was die fosforilering-afhanklike aard van die interaksie tussen COMMD4 en cMyBPC verder ondersoek met behulp van 'n domein/fosforilasie toets. Tweedens, COMMD4 en sy G2H-geïdentifiseerde vermeende bindingsgenote was geassesseer as moontlik modifiseerders van hipertrofie in 'n familie-gebaseerde assosiasie studie, met behulp van drie kohorte van Suid-Afrikaanse HKM-families waarin een van die drie stigter mutasies segregeer. Ses vermeende interaktors, nl. kardiale aktien (ACTC1), Down-sindroom kritiese streek 3 (DSCR3), enolase 1 (ENO1), F-boks en leusien ryke herhalings proteïen 10 (FBXL10), legumain (LGMN) en sorteer nexin3 (SNX3) is geïdentifiseer en bevestig as COMMD4 bindingsgenote deur G2H analises, gevolg deur in vitro en in vivo ko-immunopresipitasie en 3D ko-lokalisasie toetse. Die funksionele effek van siRNA-bemiddelde uitklop van COMMD4 op cMyBPC omset was ook ondersoek omdat 'n paar COMMD proteïen familielede, asook die nuut-geïdentifiseerde bindingsgenote van COMMD4, geassosieerd is met die UPP. Data toon ophoping van cMyBPC in die endosome by COMMD4 uitklop, wat dus aandui op 'n funksionele rol vir COMMD4 in die omset van cMyBPC. Daarbenewens, toon assosiasie analise sterk bewyse van assosiasie tussen die verskillende enkele nukleotied polimorfismes (SNPs) in SNX3 en 'n aantal hipertrofiese kenmerke,wat aandui op 'n rol vir SNX3 as 'n kandidaat modifiseerder van hipertrofie in HKM. Geen bewyse van assosiasie was waargeneem vir enige van die gene wat kodeer vir die ander COMMD4 bindingsgenote wat geïmpliseer word in die proteïen omset. Die huidige studie toon dat COMMD4, 'n min verstaande lid van die COMM familie van proteïene, aan die cMyBPC motief van cMyBPC in'n fosforilasie-afhanklike wyse bind. Verder, gebasseer op die funksies van die proteïen interaksies, hipotiseer ons dat COMMD4 'n rol speel in proteïen vervoer en omset. Meer spesifiek, COMMD4 blyk om die vorming van proteïene komplekse met die Skp1-Cul1-Fbxl (SCF) E3 "ubiquiti". ligase te fasiliteer en help waarskynlik om die teiken-substraat vir die daaropvolgende ubiquitin-konjugasie te stabiliseer. Omdat dit lyk asof COMMD4 die proteïen-omset van cMyBPC en moontlik ander sarkomeriese proteïene, soos aktien, ook beïnvloed, vestig die resultate dus 'n nuwe assosiasie tussen die sarkomeer, HKM en die UPP. Daarbenewens sal die identifisering van SNX3 as 'n hipertrofie modifiseerder voorsiening maak vir die verbeterde begrip van HKM pato-etiologie. SNX3 voeg dus by tot die groeiende ?getal van sarkomeriese modifiseerende gene, wat uiteindelik, die risiko-ontleding in HKM mag verbeter. Verder, omdat dit blyk dat genetiese modifiseerders voldoende is om die siekte-uitdrukking heeltemal te verhoed in sekere HKM draers, kan die identifikasie van SNX3 na die proteïen-omset roete dui as 'n potensiële nuwe teiken vir intervensie.

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