Growth patterns and nutrition-related problems of infants under one year attending Red Cross Children's Hospital's antiretroviral clinic and the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of their caregivers, concerning infant feeding

Wasserfall, Estelle (2011-12)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction A paucity of data exists regarding growth patterns and nutrition-related problems in infants (<12 months) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and the infant feeding knowledge, beliefs, attitude and practices of their caregivers. Aim To describe the growth and nutrition-related problems of infants (<12 months) attending the Antiretroviral (ARV) clinic at Red Cross Children’s Hospital, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of their caregivers concerning infant feeding. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with census sampling. Thirty infants and 31 caregivers were included in the sample. Anthropometric measurements were performed and interviewer-administered questionnaires were utilised to obtain the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices of the caregivers. The mean Z-score of each measurement as well as the weight-for-age, length-for-age, weight-forlength and bodymass index-for-age for each infant were determined, analysed, interpreted and described according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) growth standards for children. Results Thirty-nine percent (n=11) of the mothers (n=28) did not receive infant feeding counselling prior to delivery, while only 9 (32%) received the minimum number of at least 4 sessions, as prescribed by the Department of Health. It was not assessed whether the counselling occurred before delivery. The mean age of the infants was 6.9 (SD 3.3) months. Eighty-three percent (n=25) had an opportunistic infection prior to data collection. Twenty-three percent (n=7) were underweight-forage and 40% (n=12) of the infants were stunted. Vomiting and diarrhoea were the most common nutrition-related problems experienced. A statistical significant positive correlation (p=0.003) was found between an infant’s duration on ART and W/A z-score. Only two caregivers were breastfeeding at the time of data collection, but 34% (n=10) of the other caregivers had at some stage breastfed their infant. Formula feeding practices were poor. Sixty-two percent (n=18) were not preparing the feeds correctly and only six (21%) were correctly cleaning and sterilising the bottles. Thirty-nine percent (n=11) of the infants were not receiving an adequate amount of milk per day. Sixty-five percent (n=11) of the infants (>six months) did not receive a diet the previous day which met the minimum WHO dietary diversity indicator and only 18% (n=3) received a minimum acceptable diet. Caregivers had an average knowledge concerning infant feeding. Thirteen percent (n=4) knew the correct definition of exclusive breast- or formula feeding. Sixty-eight percent (n=21) did not know what mixed feeding meant, or the dangers associated with it. Most caregivers (n=25, 81%) knew that oral rehydration solution had to be given when infants developed diarrhoea, but only 48% (n=15) knew how to prepare it and only 6% (n=2) knew how to administer it. Seventy-five percent (n=9) of caregivers did not know what should be done when experiencing breast problems. Sixty-four percent (n=19) of the caregivers believed that if a HIV-positive woman breastfeeds she would definitely transmit HIV to her infant. Conclusion The infant sample showed a variety of erratic growth patterns with a high prevalence of underweight and stunting. Infant feeding knowledge of caregivers was average, but not deemed sufficient to translate into appropriate, safe and optimal infant feeding practices. The breastfeeding prevalence was low. Formula preparation, feeding and hygiene practices were poor and dietary intake of infants was not optimal. The quality and quantity of HIV infant feeding counselling sessions received at antenatal clinic visits were poor and need to be addressed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Inleiding Daar is 'n tekort aan data oor groeipatrone en voedingsverwante probleme by babas (<12 maande) op antiretrovirale behandeling asook die babavoedingkennis, -oortuigings, -houdings en -praktyke van hul versorgers. Doelwit Om ondersoek in te stel na die groei- en voedingsverwante probleme by babas (<12 maande) in die antiretrovirale kliniek by Rooikruis-kinderhospitaal, sowel as die babavoedingkennis, - oortuigings, -houdings en -praktyke van hul versorgers. Metodes 'n Beskrywende dwarssnitstudie is met sensussteekproefneming onderneem. Dertig babas en 31 versorgers is by die steekproef ingesluit. Antropometriese metings was gedoen en onderhoude was met behulp van vraelyste gevoer ten einde inligting oor die versorgers se kennis, houdings, oortuigings en praktyke te bekom. Elke baba se gemiddelde z-telling per meting sowel as die gewig-vir-ouderdom, lengte-vir-ouderdom en liggaamsmassa-indeks-vir-ouderdom was volgens die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie (WGO) se groeistandaarde vir kindersbepaal, ontleed, vertolk en beskryf. Resultate Altesaam 39% (n=11) van die moeders (n=28) het nie voor die bevalling voorligting oor babavoeding ontvang nie, terwyl slegs 9 (32%) die Departement van Gesondheid se voorgeskrewe minimum 4 sessies, deurloop het. Dit was nie bepaal of hierdie sessies voor die bevalling ontvang was nie. Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die babas was 6,9 (standaardafwyking 3,3) maande. 'n Totaal van 83% (n=25) het voor data-insameling 'n opportunistiese infeksie gehad, 23% (n=7) was ondergewig-vir-ouderdom, en 40% (n=12) van die babas se lengtegroei was ingekort. Die algemeenste voedingsverwante probleme was braking en diarree. Daar blyk 'n statisties beduidende positiewe korrelasie (p=0.003) te wees tussen die duur van die baba se antiretrovirale behandeling en sy/haar gewig-vir-ouderdom-z-telling. Slegs twee versorgers het hul babas ten tyde van die studie geborsvoed, hoewel 34% (n=10) van die versorgers in 'n stadium geborsvoed het. Voedingspraktyke met die gee van melkformule was swak. Altesaam 62% (n=18) het die melkformule verkeerd aangemaak en slegs ses (21%) het die bottels behoorlik skoongemaak en gesteriliseer. Nege-en-dertig persent (n=11) van die babas het te min melk per dag ontvang. Vyf-en-sestig persent (n=11) van die babas (>6 maande) se melkinname die vorige dag het nie aan die minimum WGO aanbevole dieetdiversiteitsaanwyser voldoen nie, en slegs 18% (n=3) het 'n minimum aanvaarbare dieet gevolg. Versorgers se kennis ten opsigte van babavoeding was gemiddeld, met net 13% (n=4) wat die korrekte omskrywing van eksklusiewe bors- of formulevoeding geken het. 'n Totaal van 68% (n=21) het nie geweet wat gemengde voeding beteken of watter gevare dit inhou nie. Die meeste versorgers (n=25, 81%) het geweet dat orale rehidrasie oplossing toegedien moet word wanneer babas aan diarree ly, maar slegs 48% (n=15) het geweet hoe om dit aan te maak en 'n skrale 6% (n=2) hoe om dit toe te dien. Vyf-en-sewentig persent (n=9) van die versorgers het nie geweet wat om te doen as hulle probleme met hul borste ervaar nie. Altesaam 64% (n=19) van die versorgers het geglo dat 'n MIV-positiewe vrou definitief haar baba MIV sal gee indien sy hom/haar sou borsvoed. Samevatting Die steekproef babas het 'n verskeidenheid onreëlmatige groeipatrone getoon en baie was ondergewig of het ook dwerggroei getoon. Versorgers se kennis van babavoeding was gemiddeld, maar nie voldoende om tot toepaslike, veilige en optimale babavoedingspraktyke aanleiding te gee nie. Die voorkoms van borsvoeding was laag. Melkformulevoorbereiding, - voeding en -higiëne was swak, en babas se voedinginname was nie ideaal nie. Die gehalte van en hoeveelheid voorligting oor MIV-babavoeding met besoeke aan voorgeboorteklinieke was swak en moet aangespreek word.

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