Sedimentary modelling and petrophysical characterisation of a Permian Deltaic Sequence (Kookfontein Formation), Tanqua Depocentre, SW Karoo Basin, South Africa

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dc.contributor.advisor Mikes, Daniel en_ZA Sonibare, Wasiu Adedayo en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Science. Dept. of Earth Sciences. en_ZA 2011-10-05T14:10:05Z en_ZA 2011-12-05T13:08:01Z 2011-10-05T14:10:05Z en_ZA 2011-12-05T13:08:01Z 2011-12 en_ZA
dc.description Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study presents an outcrop characterisation and modelling of the excellently exposed Permian Kookfontein Formation of the Ecca Group in the Tanqua-Karoo sub-Basin. The sedimentary modelling (i.e. facies architecture and geometry) and petrophysical characterisation followed a hierarchical and deterministic approach. Quantitative outcrop data were based on the thirteen sedimentary cycles that characterise this stratigraphic succession at the Pienaarsfontein se Berg locality; and these data were analysed using a combination of detailed sedimentary log, gamma ray log and photopanel analysis, as well as petrographic thin-section and grain size-based petrophysical analysis. Based on texture and sedimentary structures, twelve depofacies are recognised which are broadly grouped into four lithofacies associations i.e. sandstone facies, heterolithic facies, mudstone facies and soft-sediment deformation facies; these depofacies and lithofacies form the basic building blocks for the flooding surface-bounded facies succession (i.e. cycle). Also, based on sediment stacking and cycle thickness patterns as well as relative position to the shelf break, the succession is sub-divided into: (1) the lower Kookfontein member (i.e. cycles 1 to 5) exhibiting overall upward thickening and coarsening succession with progradational stacking pattern; representing deposition of mid-slope to top-slope/shelf-margin succession, and (2) the upper Kookfontein member (i.e. cycles 6 to 13) exhibiting overall upward thickening and coarsening succession with aggradational stacking pattern; representing deposition of top-slope/shelf-margin to outer shelf succession. Lateral juxtaposition of observed vertical facies variations across each cycle in an inferably basinwards direction exhibits upward change in features, i.e. decrease in gravity effects, increase in waves and decrease in slope gradient of subsequent cycles. This systematic upward transition in features, grading vertically from distal to proximal, with an overall upward thickening and coarsening progradational to aggradational stacking pattern indicates a normal regressive prograding delta. However, in detail, cycles 1-3 show some anomalies from a purely thickening and coarsening upward succession. Deposition of each cycle is believed to result from: (1) primary deposition by periodic and probably sporadic mouthbar events governed by stream flow dynamics, and (2) secondary remobilisation of sediments under gravity. The facies distribution, architecture and geometry which governs the sedimentary heterogeneity within the deltaic succession is therefore mainly a consequence of the series of mouthbar flooding events governed by sediment supply and base-level changes. These series of flooding events resulted in the delineation of the studied stratigraphic interval into two main parasequence sets, i.e. transgressive sequence set and the overlying regressive sequence set. This delineation was aided through the identification of a maximum flooding surface (i.e. maximum landwards shift in facies) above Cycle 3 in the field. The architecture and geometry of the ensuing deposystem is interpreted to have been a river-dominated, gravitationally reworked and waveinfluenced shelf edge Gilbert-type delta. Widespread distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures, their growth-style and morphology within the studied succession are empirically related to progradation of Gilbert-type mouthbars over the shelf break as well as the slope gradients of the Kookfontein deltaic clinoformal geometry. Analysis of hypothetical facies stacking and geometrical models suggests that the Kookfontein sedimentary cyclicity might not be accommodation-driven but rather sediment supply-driven. The workflow employed for petrophysical evaluation reveals that the distribution of reservoir properties within the Kookfontein deltaic sandbody geometries is strongly influenced both by depositional processes and by diagenetic factors, the latter being more important with increased burial depth. The reservoir quality of the studied sandstones decreases from proximal mouthbar sands, intermediate delta front to distal delta front facies. The major diagenetic factors influencing the reservoir quality of the studied sandstones are mechanical compaction, chemical compaction (pressure solution) and authigenic pore-filling cements (quartz cement, feldspar alteration and replacement, calcite cement, chlorite and illite). Mechanical compaction was a significant porosity reducing agent while cementation by authigenic quartz and clay minerals (i.e. illite and chlorite) might play a major role in permeability distribution. The porosity-permeability relationship trends obtained for the studied sandstones show that there is a linear relationship between porosity and permeability. The relative timing of diagenetic events as well as the percentages of porosity reduction by compaction and cementation indicates that compaction is much more responsible for porosity reduction than cementation. The described internal heterogeneity in this work is below the resolution (i.e. mm-scale) of most conventional well-logs, and therefore could supplement well-log data especially where there is no borehole image and core data. The combination of ‗descriptive‘ facies model and schematic geological model for this specific delta, and petrophysical characterisation make the results of this study applicable to any other similar ancient deposystem and particularly subsurface reservoir analogue. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie bied ‘n dagsoomkarakterisering en -modellering van die duidelik blootgelegde Permiese Kookfontein-formasie van die Ecca-groep in die Tankwa-Karoo-subkom. Wat die sedimentêre modellering (d.w.s. fasiesargitektuur en -geometrie) en petrofisiese karakterisering betref is ‘n hiërargiese en deterministiese benadering gevolg. Kwantitatiewe dagsoomdata is gebaseer op dertien sedimentêre siklusse wat hierdie stratigrafiese opeenvolging in die Pienaarsfontein se Berg-lokaliteit kenmerk; en die data is geanaliseer met behulp van ‘n kombinasie van gedetailleerde sedimentêre seksie, gammastraal-profiel en fotopaneelanalises, asook petrografiese slypplaatjie- en korrelgrootte-gebaseerde petrofisiese analises. Op grond van tekstuur en sedimentêre strukture is twaalf afsettingsfasies onderskei wat rofweg in vier assosiasies van litofasies gegroepeer kan word: sandsteenfasies, heterolitiese fasies, moddersteenfasies en sagtesediment-deformasiefasies. Hierdie afsettingsfasies en litofasies vorm die basiese boustene vir die fasiesopeenvolging (d.w.s. siklus) wat oorstromingsoppervlakgebonde is. Verder word die opeenvolging aan die hand van sedimentstapeling en skilusdiktepatrone, asook relatiewe posisie tot die rakbreuk, in die volgende onderverdeel: (1) die benede-Kookfontein-deel (d.w.s. siklus 1 tot 5), wat in die geheel ‘n opwaartse verdikkings- en vergrowwingsopeenvolging met ‘n progradasiestapelpatroon vertoon en die afsetting van middelhelling-tot-boonstehelling- of rakrand-opeenvolging verteenwoordig, en (2) die benede-Kookfontein-deel (d.w.s. siklus 6 tot 13) wat in die geheel ‘n opwaartse verdikkings- en vergrowwingsopeenvolging met ‘n aggradasiestapelpatroon vertoon en die afsetting van boonste helling- of rakrand-tot-buiterakopeenvolging verteenwoordig. Die laterale jukstaposisie van waargenome vertikale fasiesvariasies oor elke siklus heen, in ‘n afleibare komwaartse rigting, vertoon opwaartse verandering wat kenmerke betref, naamlik afname in gravitasiegevolge, toename in golwe en afname in die hellinggradiënt van daaropvolgende siklusse. Hierdie stelselmatige opwaartse oorgang van kenmerke, wat vertikaal van distaal tot proksimaal gradiënteer en in die geheel opwaartse verdikking en vergrowwing in ‘n progradasie-tot-aggradasie-stapelpatroon vertoon, dui op ‘n normale regressiewe progradasiedelta. Van naby beskou, vertoon siklus 1-3 egter bepaalde afwykings van ‘n suiwer opwaartse verdikkings- en vergrowwingsopeenvolging. Die afsettings van elke siklus is vermoedelik die gevolg van: (1) primêre afsetting deur periodieke en waarskynlik sporadiese mondversperringsgebeure wat deur stroomvloeidinamika beheer word, en (2) sekondêre hermobilisering van sedimente deur gravitasie. Die fasiesverspreiding, -argitektuur en -geometrie wat die sedimentêre heterogeniteit in die deltaïese opeenvolging beheer, is dus hoofsaaklik ‘n gevolg van die reeks oorstromingsgebeure by die mondversperring, wat deur sedimentvoorsiening en basisvlakveranderings beheer word. Hierdie reeks oorstromingsgebeure het gelei tot die delineasie van die bestudeerde stratigrafiese interval volgens twee hoofparasekwensie stelle, naamlik die transgressiewe opeenvolgings- en die oordekkende, regressiewe opeenvolgingsgroep. Dié delineasie word ondersteun deur die feit dat ‘n maksimum oorstromingsoppervlak (d.w.s. maksimum landwaartse verskuiwing in fasies) bo siklus 3 in die veld uitgeken is. Die argitektuur en geometrie van die daaropvolgende afsettingstelsel word geïnterpreteer as behorende tot ‘n Gilbert-rakranddelta wat deur ‘n rivier gedomineer, deur gravitasie herbewerk en deur golfwerking beïnvloed is. Die wye verspreiding van sagtesediment-deformasiestrukture, en die groeiwyse en morfologie daarvan binne die bestudeerde opeenvolging, is empiries verwant aan die progradasie van Gilbertmondversperrings oor die rakbreuk heen, asook aan die hellinggradiënte van die Kookfontein-deltaïese, klinoformele geometrie. Die analise van hipotetiese fasiesstapeling en geometriese modelle dui daarop dat die Kookfontein-sedimentêre siklisiteit dalk nie deur akkommodasieruimte gedryf word nie, maar deur sedimentvoorsiening. Die werkvloei wat vir petrofisiese evaluering gebruik is dui daarop dat die verspreiding van reservoir-eienskappe in die Kookfontein- deltaïese sandliggaam geometries sterk beïnvloed word deur afsettingsprosesse en diagenetiese faktore. Die diagenetiese faktore word belangriker op groter begrawing diepte. Die reservoir-aard van die bestudeerde sandgesteentes neem algaande af van proksimale mondversperring-sandsoorte tot intermediêre deltafront tot distale deltafrontfasies. Die hoof-diagenetiese faktore wat die reservoir-kenmerke van die bestudeerde sandsteensoorte beïnvloed is meganiese verdigting, chemiese verdigting (oplossingsdruk) en outigeniese porievullingsement (kwartssement, veldspaatomsetting en -vervanging, kalsietsement, chloriet en illiet). Meganiese verdigting is ‘n beduidende poreusheidreduseermiddel, terwyl sementering deur outigeniese kwarts- en kleiminerale (d.w.s. illiet en chloriet) moontlik ‘n belangrike rol by permeabiliteitsverspreiding kan speel. Die poreusheid-permeabiliteit-verhoudingstendense wat bekom is vir die bestudeerde sandsteensoorte dui daarop dat daar ‘n lineêre verhouding tussen poreusheid en permeabiliteit bestaan. Die relatiewe tydberekening van diagenetiese gebeure, asook die persentasie poreusheidvermindering deur verdigting en sementering, dui daarop dat verdigting baie meer as sementering tot poreusheidvermindering bydra. Die interne heterogeniteit wat in hierdie werk beskryf word, is onder die resolusie (d.w.s. mm-skaal) van die meeste konvensionele boorgatopnames, en kan dus boorgatopnamedata aanvul, veral waar daar geen boorgatafbeelding en kerndata bestaan nie. Die kombinasie van die 'deskriptiewe‘ fasiesmodel en skematiese geologiese model vir hierdie spesifieke delta, asook petrofisiese karakterisering, beteken dat die resultate van hierdie studie op enige ander soortgelyke antieke afsettingstelsels toegepas kan word, maar veral op suboppervlakreservoir-analoogstelsels. af_ZA
dc.format.extent 205 p. : ill.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch en_ZA
dc.subject Shelf edge Gilbert-type delta en_ZA
dc.subject Facies architecture en_ZA
dc.subject Geological model en_ZA
dc.subject Petrophysical properties en_ZA
dc.subject Diagenesis en_ZA
dc.subject Outcrop analogue en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Earth sciences en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Earth sciences en_ZA
dc.title Sedimentary modelling and petrophysical characterisation of a Permian Deltaic Sequence (Kookfontein Formation), Tanqua Depocentre, SW Karoo Basin, South Africa en_ZA
dc.type Thesis
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University

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