The extent of water sensitive urban design in the George municipality

Lottering, Naomey Olive (2011-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigated the extent of Water Sensitive Urban Design activities in the George municipality in the Western Cape Province, in South Africa. Water resource management in urban areas worldwide had become unsustainable with the widespread implementation of outsized infrastructure, environmental degradation and overuse of natural resources. The result was a concept called Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM). IUWM encapsulates the entire water cycle from rainwater to surface water, groundwater and wastewater, as part of urban water management, and not as separate entities. There was worldwide response to IUWM, with the USA formulating Low-Impact Development (LID), the UK designing their Sustainable Urban Drainage System (SUDS), and New Zealand articulating Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD), all to improve urban water resource management. Australia responded with Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). WSUD explores the design and planning of water infrastructural development in an urban setting, vital in Australian cities which experience continuous severe water shortage conditions. The WSUD approach aims to influence design and planning from the moment rainwater is captured in dams, treated, and reticulated to consumers, to the point of wastewater re-use, as well as stormwater use. Various techniques are specified as part of the WSUD approach namely: the installation of greenroofs, demand reduction techniques, stormwater management and the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation and fire-fighting. These WSUD activities can be implemented from large-scale efforts with whole suburbs working together to manage stormwater by construction of wetlands, as well as small-scale change in design and planning, e.g., with household rainwater tank installation for irrigation and toilet flushing. With South Africa’s progressive legislation at a national, provincial and local municipal level, various WSUD activities can be implemented to aid and guide municipalities. The study aimed to investigate what type of WSUD activities the George municipality has implemented, and to what extent the activities had an impact on water consumption, since the drought in 2009. The reasons behind any lack of implementation were also explored. Proof of only eight WSUD activities implementation could be found. Water debtors’ data and bulk water data was sourced in order to determine the effect of the eight WSUD activities on water consumption. Bulk meter data could however not be used to correlate with the debtors’ data since readings from many bulk meters had not been recorded. Debtors’ data did prove however that the WSUD activities had a short-term impact on water consumption in the suburbs where it was implemented. The reasons given for non-implementation were not satisfactory. Recommendations are that the municipality should focus on better planning and implementation of diverse activities and that keeping records and data should be made a priority to determine any progress made.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die omvang van die Water Sensitiewe Stedelike Ontwerp (WSUD) aktiwiteite in die George munisipaliteit in die Wes-Kaap, in Suid-Afrika. Waterhulpbronbestuur in stedelike gebiede in die wêreld het nie-volhoubaar geword met die grootskaalse implementering van buitenmaatse infrastruktuur, agteruitgang van die omgewing en die oorbenutting van natuurlike waterhulpbronne. Die gevolg was 'n konsep wat Geïntegreerde Stedelike Water Bestuur (IUWM) genoem is. IUWM omvat die hele watersiklus vanaf reënval, tot oppervlakwater, grondwater en afvalwater, as deel van die stedelike waterbestuur, en nie as aparte entiteite nie. Daar was 'n wêreldwye reaksie te IUWM, met die VSA se Lae-impak-Ontwikkeling (LID), die Verenigde Koninkryk se ontwerp van hul volhoubare stedelike dreineringstelsel (SUDS), en Nieu-Seeland se formulering van Lae-impak Stedelike Ontwerp en Ontwikkeling (LIUDD), om stedelike water hulpbronne beter te bestuur. Australië het reageer met Water Sensitiewe Stedelike Ontwerp (WSUD). WSUD verken die ontwerp en beplanning van waterbestuur infrastruktuur ontwikkeling, in 'n stedelike omgewing, waar dit noodsaaklik was in die Australiese stede wat deurlopende tekort aan water ervaar. Die WSUD benadering het ten doel om die ontwerp en beplanning te beïnvloed vanaf die oomblik reënwater in damme opgevang is, behandel, en aan verbruikers versprei word, tot by die punt van afvalwater hergebruik, sowel as stormwater gebruik. Verskeie tegnieke word verskaf as deel van die WSUD benadering, naamlik: die installering van “greenroofs”, wateraanvraagbestuur tegnieke, en stormwater gebruik en hergebruik van behandelde afvalwater vir besproeiing en brandbestryding. Hierdie WSUD aktiwiteite kan implementeer word vanaf grootskaalse pogings met die samewerking van hele voorstede met stormwater bestuur deur die konstruksie van die vleilande, sowel as kleinskaalse verandering in die ontwerp en beplanning by huishoudings, byvoorbeeld met reënwatertenk installasie vir besproeiing en toilet spoel. Met Suid-Afrika se progressiewe wetgewing op 'n nasionale, provinsiale en plaaslike munisipale vlak wat munisipaliteite steun en lei, kan die verskeie WSUD aktiwiteite ïmplementeer word. Die studie is gemik om ondersoek in te stel na watter tipe WSUD aktiwiteite deur die George-munisipaliteit implementeer word, en tot watter mate die aktiwiteite 'n impak gehad het op die water verbruik sedert die droogte in 2009. Die redes agter 'n gebrek aan implementering is ook ondersoek. Bewyse van implementering van net agt WSUD aktiwiteite kon gevind word. Data van die water debiteure en grootmaat water meters is verkry ten einde die effek van die agt WSUD aktiwiteite op die water verbruik te bepaal. Grootmaat water meter data kan egter nie gebruik word om te korreleer met die data van die debiteure aangesien die lesings van baie grootmaat water meters nie aangeteken is nie. Debiteure se data het egter bewys dat die WSUD aktiwiteite 'n korttermyn-impak op die waterverbruik in die voorstede waar dit geïmplementeer is gemaak het. Die redes gegee vir nieuitvoering is nie bevredigend nie. Aanbevelings is dat die munisipaliteit moet fokus op beter beplanning en implementering van diverse aktiwiteite en dat die hou van rekords en data prioriteit gemaak moet word om vas te stel of enige vordering gemaak is.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17848
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