Hepatitis-B-associated glomerular disease : a clinicopathological study of Hepatitis B virus associated Membranous Glomerulonephritis in Namibian and South African children 1974 – 2005 and a comparison with hepatitis B associated Membranous Glomerulonephritis as well as Idiopathic Membranous Glomerulonephritis in adults

Bates, William D. (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12)

Thesis (PhD (Med))--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background and Objective: The most common cause of severe proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome (NS) in children worldwide is minimal change disease (MCD). This is also the pattern observed in white and Indian children in South Africa (SA). By contrast, black and mixed race/coloured children of Southern Africa in the 1960s to 1990s were shown to have a different pattern of NS. One of the main differences was the frequency of hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated glomerulonephritis, usually membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN). The objective of this project was a clinicopathological study of this subgroup of nephrotic children to document the disease further and in particular to seek correlations between pathological and clinical features including prognosis. A central focus was to document the detailed ultrastructural examination of the renal biopsies of these children and to correlate the spectrum of pathological features with demographic, clinical, laboratory and prognostic features. The hypothesis was that the clinicopathological features of HBV MGN in children differed substantially from idiopathic MGN in general (children and adults) and also from HBV MGN in adults and that HBV MGN in children should be viewed as a distinct disease. Patients and methods: The childhood (12 years and younger) patient cohort was 309 children with severe proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome who presented at Tygerberg Hospital (TBH) over a 21 year period from 1974-1995, including 67 children from Namibia. The study group was 71 children with HBV MGN who were followed up to 2005. The comparative adult group was 45 adults with MGN of whom 12 had HBV MGN and 33 idiopathic MGN. (A comparison could not be made with idiopathic MGN in childhood as this centre only had 2 such patients during the study period.) Demographic, clinical, laboratory and renal pathology data were collected, compared and correlated. Results: HBV associated MGN was the most frequent cause of NS in the Namibian subgroup, 25/67 (37%) and the third most frequent, 71/309 (23%) in the childhood cohort as a whole. The MGN group was 86% (71/83) of the total HBV childhood nephrotic cohort, by far the dominant subgroup. The average age of the 71 children with HBV MGN was 6.0 years (range 2-12 years) at presentation and boys comprised 80% of the group. Hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) was identified in the serum of 87% of children tested. Laboratory features different from idiopathic MGN included more prominent haematuria, mildly raised serum transaminases and more frequently lowered serum C3 and C4 levels. Light microscopic examination of renal biopsies showed mesangial proliferation in all patients but with minimal glomerular sclerosis and interstitial disease. On ultrastructural examination mesangial and subendothelial deposits were common and prominent as was mesangial interposition. The MGN of HBV in children therefore frequently showed mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) features in addition to the subepithelial deposits of MGN. The subgroup of 23 whose renal biopsies displayed severe mesangial interposition in addition to the subepithelial deposits of MGN were termed the mixed HBV MGN-mesangiocapillary GN group. Virus like bodies and tubuloreticular inclusion bodies were both found in more than 80% of biopsies of childhood HBV MGN. HBeAg was identified in the subepithelial deposits in the glomeruli. This was the first time this feature was demonstrated in Africa. The 46 South African children with HBV MGN showed a cumulative remission rate of 25% at 2 years and 52% at 4 years. Seven of the children (10%) of the total cohort developed chronic renal failure (CRF). Age of 6 years and above at presentation and severe mesangial deposits on biopsy correlated with fewer remissions and poorer outcome. In 3 patients the interval between the diagnosis of HBV MGN and the onset of CRF was more than 19 years with the longest being 23 years. The 358 cases of childhood HBV MGN from Southern Africa constitute 37% of the reported childhood patients. Comparative data A comparison was made between the 71 children with HBV MGN, 12 adults with HBV MGN and 33 adults with idiopathic MGN. The main differences were that both HBV MGN groups included only coloured and black patients and were more predominantly male while the idiopathic MGN group included all races. In the HBV patients, haematuria was more frequent and severe, liver enzymes were frequently raised and C3 more frequently reduced than in the idiopathic cohort. Both groups of adult MGN patients had normal C4 levels while the childhood HBV MGN group had reduced C4 levels. The immune complex pattern in both of the HBV MGN adult and childhood groups on biopsy was similar with more mesangial and subendothelial deposits as well as mesangial interposition than the idiopathic group. Despite this similarity between the two HBV groups, both adult groups showed more glomerular sclerosis and interstitial disease than the childhood group. The clinical outcome of the children’s cohort was better than the other 2 groups with remission (52%) more frequent at 4 years (p< 0.01) and better renal and patient survival. Including the 83 cases from this series, at least 1243 renal biopsy proven cases of HBV MGN have been reported in the English literature; children (80%) and adults (20%). The male gender predominance in both age groups for HBV MGN is similar (children 79%; adults 84%) and significantly greater than for idiopathic MGN. Conclusions: The findings confirm that HBV MGN in children is a distinct form of GN which broadens the classical morphologic description of MGN by often including a number of mesangiocapillary GN features. The subgroup of renal biopsies with the most severe mesangiocapillary GN features was classified as the mixed HBV MGNmesangiocapillary GN group. The MGN spectrum as a whole comprised 86% of the HBV positive childhood group. HBV MGN was the most frequent association with NS/severe proteinuria in the Namibian subgroup (37%) and the third largest group (19%) in the SA children. It showed a relatively high spontaneous remission rate but at least 10% of the children developed renal failure. Age of 6 years and above at presentation and severe mesangial deposits on biopsy correlated with fewer remissions and poorer outcome. Extended follow up (more than 15 years) was required to demonstrate renal failure in some patients in the poor outcome group. Urbanisation, associated with lower HBV carrier rates, and HBV vaccination (initiated routinely in 1995 in SA), have already lead to a sharply decreasing incidence of this disease in SA. HBV MGN has been a valuable and possibly unique model of human GN and MGN in particular in that the HBeAg has been identified in both the serum and glomeruli enabling confirmation of the aetiological role of HBeAg.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond en Doelwit: Die algemeenste oorsaak van erge proteïenurie/nefrotiese sindroom (NS) in kinders wêreldwyd is minimale veranderingsiekte. Hierdie patroon kom ook voor in blanke- en Indiër kinders in Suid-Afrika. In teenstelling hiermee is aangetoon dat swart en kleurling/gemengde ras kinders in Suider Afrika tussen die jare 1960s tot 1990s ’n ander patroon van nefrotiese sindroom gehad het. Een van die hoof verskille was die algemene voorkoms van hepatitis B virus (HBV) geassosieerde glomerulonefritis, gewoonlik membraneuse glomerulonefritis (MGN). Die doelwit van hierdie projek was ’n klinies-patologiese studie van hierdie subgroep van nefrotiese kinders ten einde die siekte verder te beskryf en veral om korrelasies te tref tussen patologiese en kliniese kenmerke insluitende prognose. Die gedetaileerde ultrastrukturele ondersoek van die kinders se nierbiopsies en die korrelasie van die spektrum patologiese kenmerke met demografiese, kliniese, laboratorium en prognostiese kenmerke was ‘n sentrale fokusarea. Die hipotese was dat die klinies-patologiese kenmerke van HBV MGN in kinders wesenlik van idiopatiese MGN in die algemeen verskil (in kinders en volwassenes) en ook van HBV MGN in volwassenes, en dat die beeld in kinders as ’n afsonderlike siekte beskou behoort te word. Pasiënte en metodes: Die kinder kohort (12 jaar en jonger) was 309 kinders met erge proteïenurie/nefrotiese sindroom wie in Tygerberg Hospitaal (TBH) behandel was oor ‘n 21 jarige periode vanaf 1974 tot 1995, insluitende 67 kinders van Namibië. Die studiegroep was 71 kinders met HBV MGN wie waar moontlik tot 2005 opgevolg was. Die vergelykende volwasse groep was 45 volwassenes met MGN van wie 12 HBV MGN gehad het en 33 idiopatiese MGN. (’n Vergelyking met idiopatiese MGN in kinders kon nie gedoen word nie omdat hierdie sentrum net twee sulke pasiënte tydens die studietyd behandel het.) Demografiese, kliniese, laboratorium en nierpatologie inligting is versamel, vergelyk en gekorreleer. Resultate: HBV geassosieerde MGN was die algemeenste oorsaak van NS in die Namibiese subgroep, 25/67 (37%) en die derde mees algemeen, 71/309 (23%) in die kinder kohort as geheel. Die MGN groep was 86% (71/83) van die totale HBV kinder nefrotiese kohort en verreweg die oorheersende subgroep. Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die 71 kinders met HBV MGN by presentering was 6.0 jaar (reikwydte 2-12 jaar) en seuns het 80% van die groep behels. Hepatitis B omhullingsantigeen (envelope antigen- HBeAg) is aangetoon in die serum van 87% van die kinders wie daarvoor getoets is. Laboratoriumkenmerke wat van idiopatiese MGN verskil het, het ingesluit meer prominente hematurie, gering verhoogde serum transaminases en meer dikwels verlaagde serum C3 en C4 vlakke. Ligmikroskopiese ondersoek van die nierbiopsies het mesangiale proliferasie in elke pasiënt getoon, maar met minimale glomerulêre sklerose en interstisiële siekte. Met ultrastrukturele ondersoek was mesangiale en subendoteliële neerslae asook mesangiale interposisie algemeen. Die MGN van HBV in kinders het dus dikwels kenmerke van mesangiokapillêre glomerulonefritis getoon bo en behalwe die subepiteliële neerslae van MGN. Die ondergroep van 23 van wie die nierbiopsies erge mesangiale interposisie aangetoon het asook die subepiteliale neerslae van MGN is die gemengde HBV MGN-mesangiokapillêre GN groep genoem. Virustipe liggaampies en tubuloretikulêre insluitingsliggaampies is in meer as 80% van die biopsies bevestig. HBeAg was in die subepiteliële neerslae identifiseer. Dit was die eerste keer dat hierdie kenmerk in Afrika identifiseer is. Die 46 Suid-Afrikaanse kinders het ’n kumulatiewe remissie koers van 25% teen 2 jaar en van 52% teen 4 jaar getoon. Sewe van die kinders (10%) van die hele kohort het kroniese nierversaking (KNV) ontwikkel. Ouderdom van 6 jaar en meer by presentasie en erge mesangiale neerslae in ‘n biopsie het met minder remissies en ’n swakker uitkoms gekorreleer. Drie pasiënte het meer as 19 jaar na aanvanklike voordoening ooglopende KNV ontwikkel, waarvan 23 jaar die langste interval was. Die 358 gevalle van kinderjare HBV MGN van Suidelike-Afrika maak 37% uit van die gerapporteerde kinder pasiënte. Vergelykende data ’n Vergelyking is getref tussen die 71 kinders met HBV MGN, 12 volwassenes met HBV MGN en 33 volwassenes met idiopatiese MGN. Die hoof verskille was dat beide HBV groepe net kleurling en swart pasiënte ingesluit het en meer oorwegend manlik was, terwyl die idiopatiese groep alle rasse ingesluit het. In die HBV pasiënte was hematurie meer algemeen en erg, lewer ensieme meer dikwels verhoog en C3 meer dikwels verlaag as in die idiopatiese kohort. Beide groepe van volwasse MGN pasiënte het normale C4 vlakke getoon terwyl die kindergroep met HBV MGN verlaagde C4 vlakke bewys het. Die immuunkompleks patroon in biopsies van die HBV MGN volwasse en kindergroepe was soortgelyk met meer mesangiale en subendoteliële neerslae asook meer mesangiale interposisie as in die idiopatiese groep. Ten spyte van hierdie ooreenkoms tussen die twee HBV groepe, het die twee volwasse groepe meer glomerulêre sklerose en interstisiële siekte as die kindergroep vertoon. Die kliniese uitkoms van die kinderkohort was beter as die ander twee groepe met remissie (52%) wat meer algemeen was teen 4 jaar (p< 0.01) en met beter nier- en pasïent oorlewing. Ingeslote die 83 gevalle van hierdie reeks, is ten minste 1243 nierbiopsie bewysde gevalle van HBV MGN in kinders (80%) en volwassenes (20%) in die Engelse literatuur gerapporteer. Die manlike oorheersing in beide ouderdomsgroepe van HBV MGN is soortgelyk (kinders 79%; volwassenes 84%) en betekenisvol meer as vir idiopatiese MGN. Gevolgtrekkings: Die bevindinge bevestig dat HBV MGN in kinders ’n afsonderlike vorm van GN is wat die klassieke beskrywing van MGN verbreed deur die algemene insluiting van ’n aantal mesangiokapillêre GN kenmerke. Die ondergroep van nier biopsies met erge mesangiokapillêre GN kenmerke is as die gemengde HBV MGNmesangiokapillêre GN groep geklassifiseer. Die MGN spektrum in geheel het 86% van die HBV positiewe kindergroep behels. HBV MGN was die mees algemene assosiasie met NS/erge proteïenurie in die Namibiese subgroep (37%) en die derde grootse groep (19%) onder die SA kinders. Die siekte het ’n relatiewe hoë spontane remissiekoers getoon, maar ten minste 10% van die kinders het nierversaking ontwikkel. Ouderdom van 6 jaar en meer by presentasie en erge mesangiale neerslae in ‘n nierbiopsie het met minder remissies en ’n slegter uitkoms gekorreleer. Uitgebreide opvolg (meer as 15 jaar) was nodig om nierversaking in sommige van die swak uitkomsgroep aan te toon. Verstedeliking is geassosieerd met laer HBV draersyfers en hierdie faktor saam met algemene HBV inenting in die kinderjare (wat in 1995 in SA begin was), het ’n skerp daling in die voorkoms van hierdie siekte in SA teweeg gebring. HBV MGN is ’n waardevolle en moontlik unieke model van menslike GN en MGN, veral omdat die HBeAg in beide die serum en glomeruli identifiseer kon word om die etiologiese rol van HBeAg te bevestig.

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