The adaptation and norming of selected psychometric tests for 12- to 15- year-old urbanized Western Cape adolescents

Ferrett, Helen Louise (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12)

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The practice of psychometric testing of cognitive functioning in South Africa is hampered by the paucity of normative data that adequately characterize our ethnically, linguistically, socioeconomically, and educationally diverse population. The general aim of this study was to ascertain whether cognitive tests developed in settings outside of the Western Cape urbanized area have valid application for clinical and research purposes in that area. Strategies used to achieve that aim included: 1) translation, adaptation, and subsequent administration of a compendium of tests in a sample of typically developing, coloured and white, 12- to 15-yearold, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents; 2) evaluation of the relative impact of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, language, quality of education, and race) on test performance and the consequent derivation of appropriately stratified normative data; and 3) evaluation of the cross-cultural utility of the normative data by comparing data collected from the study sample to norms derived from other populations. Results indicated that sex and language of testing impacted minimally on cognitive functioning. In contrast, the pervasive and deleterious impact of disadvantaged quality of education on cognitive performance within typically developing adolescents was clearly demonstrated. For participants with advantaged quality of education, coloured race was associated with lower performance on measures of intelligence, semantic fluency, and one measure of attention. Furthermore, the results provided evidence of age-related increments in cognitive performance, particularly after the age of 12. For cognitive measures that were significantly affected by language, race, and quality of education, trends of a downward continuum of performance were demonstrated, from highest to lowest, as follows: 1) English-white-advantaged; 2) Afrikaans-white-advantaged; 3) Englishcoloured- advantaged; 4) English-coloured-disadvantaged; 5) Afrikaans-coloured-advantaged; and 6) Afrikaans-coloured-disadvantaged. Cross-cultural comparisons of norms showed that for some tests, norms derived from other populations were suitable for use in the study sample. For other tests, however, results showed that for certain subgroups, it was essential to use the stratified norms derived from the study in order to prevent misdiagnoses.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die psigometriese toetsing van kognitiewe funksionering word in Suid-Afrika gekniehalter deur 'n gebrek aan normatiewe data wat ons etnies, taalkundig, sosio-ekonomies en opvoedkundig diverse bevolking genoegsaam tipeer. Die algemene doel van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of kognitiewe toetse wat in omgewings buite die Wes-Kaapse stedelike gebied ontwikkel is, ook vir kliniese en navorsingsdoeleindes binne hierdie stedelike gebied aangewend kan word. Hiervoor is onder meer die volgende strategieë gevolg: 1) 'n kompendium toetse is vertaal, aangepas en vervolgens afgeneem onder ’n toetsgroep tipies ontwikkelende, bruin en wit, 12- tot 15-jarige, Afrikaans- en Engelssprekende adolessente; 2) die relatiewe impak van sosiodemografiese faktore (ouderdom, geslag, taal, opvoedingsgehalte en ras) op toetsprestasie, en die gevolglike verkryging van toepaslik gestratifiseerde normatiewe data, is beoordeel en 3) die kruiskulturele nut van die normatiewe data is beoordeel deur die data wat van die toetsgroep in hierdie studie verkry is, te vergelyk met norme wat van ander populasies bekom is. Die resultate toon dat geslag en die taal waarin die toets afgeneem word 'n minimale uitwerking op kognitiewe funksionering het. Daarenteen is duidelik bewys dat swakker gehalte opvoeding ’n verreikende en skadelike uitwerking op die kognitiewe funksionering van tipies ontwikkelende adolessente het. By deelnemers met beter gehalte opvoeding blyk daar 'n verband te wees tussen die bruin rassegroep en laer prestasie wat betref maatstawwe van intelligensie en semantiese vaardigheid, asook een maatstaf van konsentrasie. Voorts lewer die resultate bewys van ouderdomsverwante toenames in kognitiewe prestasie, veral ná die ouderdom van 12. Wat betref kognitiewe maatstawwe wat beduidend deur taal, ras en opvoedingsgehalte beïnvloed is, is 'n afwaartse prestasiekontinuum opgemerk wat van hoog na laag soos volg daar uitsien: 1) Engels-wit-bevoordeel, 2) Afrikaans-wit-bevoordeel, 3) Engels-bruin-bevoordeel, 4) Engelsbruin- benadeel, 5) Afrikaans-bruin-bevoordeel en 6) Afrikaans-bruin-benadeel. Kruiskulturele normvergelykings toon dat, wat sommige toetse betref, die norme wat van ander populasies bekom is ook geskik was vir gebruik onder die toetsgroep in hierdie studie. Wat ander toetse betref, het die resultate egter getoon dat dit by bepaalde subgroepe noodsaaklik is om die gestratifiseerde norme wat uit die betrokke studie afgelei is te gebruik ten einde verkeerde diagnoses te voorkom.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17799
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