Fluoroscopy based needle-positioning system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures
Thesis (MScEng (Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering))--Stellenbosch University, 2008.
A fluoroscopy-guided needle-positioning system is designed and tested as a first prototype for aiding urologists in gaining fast, accurate and repeatable kidney calyx access during a PCNL procedure while also reducing radiation exposure of the people involved. Image guidance is realized by modelling the fluoroscopic system as an adapted pinhole camera model and utilizing stereo vision principles on a stereo image pair. Calibration, distortion correction and image processing algorithms are implemented on images of a designed calibration object. Thereafter the resulting variables are used in the targeting of the calyx with the aid of a graphical user interface. The required relative translation and rotation of the needle from its current position to the target is calculated and the system is adjusted accordingly. Using digital cameras, needle placement accuracies of 2.5 mm is achieved within the calibrated volume in a simulated environment. Similar results are achieved in the surgery room environment using the fluoroscopic system. Successful needle access in two porcine kidney calyxes concluded the testing