ART-related body composition changes in adult women in a semi-rural South African context

De Bruto, Petro C. (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2006-12)

Assignment (MPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate practical methods of monitoring AIDS related wasting and lipodystrophy in a resource-poor clinical setting with HIV infected women as the population group of interest. Measurement of body composition changes using anthropometry is both cost- and time-efficient. Various different skinfolds were taken and two different equations (the equations of Pollock et al. (1975) and Durnin and Womersley (1974) for calculating body fat were used to determine the most promising method or methods of monitoring body composition changes in a clinical setting. Detailed anthropometric measurements were performed, as well as selected measurements for haematological parameters and quality of life (QoL) for a group of 8 participants on antiretroviral medication (ART group) and 6 participants who were not on treatment (TN group). New variables namely, intra-abdominal indicator (IAI) and a percent of ideal body mass to percent of ideal arm circumference ratio (%IBW:%IAC) were investigated as possible indicators of lipodystrophy. Although measurements were taken at various timepoints, three specific time-points were chosen for data-analysis for the ART group and two time points for the TN group. These three time-points were, baseline (on the day of recruitment for TN participants and within one month before the initiation of treatment for ART participants), short-term (2 to 12 weeks after treatment initiation or the baseline measurement or for the ART and the TN participants) and long-term (within one and a half year of treatment initiation for the ART group). ART and TN participants did not differ for many variables at baseline. The major differences between ART and TN were in measured and derived variables of the arm, especially percent of ideal arm circumference (%IAC) and upper arm fat area (UAFA), which were significantly lower in the ART group. CD4+ and QoL improved significantly for the ART participants from baseline to long-term. This was not associated with changes in muscle mass, but rather some fat mass variables. Participants on antiretroviral medication exhibited changes relating to abdominal obesity. It was concluded that antiretroviral therapy contributed greatly to the QoL of the participants and it probably aided in the recovery from wasting for at least one participant in this study. Measures of the arm can be used in a rural clinical setting to effectively monitor patients with regard to AIDS related wasting. The new variables IAI and %IBW:%IAC could be helpful in the monitoring of lipodystrophy and should be investigated in future research.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doelwit van hierdie studie is om praktiese metodes te ondersoek om VIGS-verwante uittering en lipodistrofie te meet in ‘n plattelandse kliniese omgewing (waar hulpbronne dikwels beperk is) met MIV ge-infekteerde vroue as populasiegroep. Die gebruik van antropometrie om veranderinge in liggaamssamestelling te meet is beide koste- en tydeffektief. Verskeie velvoumetings is geneem en twee verskillende vergelykings (die vergelykings van Pollock et al. (1975) en Durnin en Womersley (1974)) is gebruik om liggaamsvetinhoud te bereken, met die doel om ‘n belowende metode te vind om veranderinge in liggaamssamestelling te meet in ‘n kliniese omgewing. Verskeie antropometriese metings is geneem, sowel as uitgesoekte hematologiese en lewenskwaliteitmetings (QoL) vir ‘n groep van agt deelnemers wat antiretrovirale medikasie ontvang het (ART groep) en ses deelnemers wat nie hierdie behandeling ontvang het nie (TN groep). Nuwe veranderlikes (binnebuikindikator (IAI) en die verhouding van persentasie van ideale liggaamsmassa tot persentasie van ideale armomtrek (%IBW:%IAC)) is ondersoek as moontlike aanwysers van lipodistrofie. Drie spesifieke tydpunte vir die ART groep en twee tydpunte vir die TN groep is gekies uit die verskeie tydpunte waarby metings geneem is, nl. basislyn (gedefinieer as die dag wat TN deelnemers in die studie opgeneem is en 0 tot 4 weke voor die begin van behandeling vir die ART deelnemers), korttermyn (2 tot 12 weke nadat behandeling begin is of na die basislyn meting) en lang-termyn (binne een en ‘n half jaar nadat behandeling begin is vir die ART groep). By die basislyn tydpunt het min van die ART en TN deelnemers se gemete veranderlikes verskil. Die ART en TN groepe het hoofsaaklik verskil ten opsigte van veranderlikes wat betrekking het op die arm, veral persentasie van ideale armomtrek (%IAC) en bo-arm vetarea (UAFA). Hierdie twee veranderlikes was beduidend laer in die ART groep as in die TN groep. CD4+ seltelling en lewenskwaliteit tellings het beduidend verbeter vir die ART deelnemers van die basislyn tot die lang-termyn tydpunt. Hierdie veranderinge is nie samehangend met veranderinge in spiermassa nie, maar eerder met sommige vetmassa veranderlikes. Deelnemers wat antiretrovirale medikasie ontvang het, het veranderinge getoon wat gedui het op ‘n verhoogde neerlegging van vet in die buikarea. Ten slotte is bevind dat antiretrovirale medikasie bygedra het tot die verbeterde lewenskwaliteit van die deelnemers en dat dit waarskynlik ook die omkeer van uittering van ten minste een deelnemer aangehelp het. Daar is ook bevind dat armverwante metinge gebruik kan word in die plattelandse kliniese omgewing om pasiënte suksesvol te monitor ten opsigte van VIGSverwante uittering. Die nuwe veranderlikes, IAI en %IBW:%IAC kan moontlik gebruik word om lipodistrofie-verwante veranderings te meet en die gebruik van hierdie veranderlikes behoort ondersoek te word in verdere navorsing.

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