Tuberculosis and HIV - Features of the co-infection [TB und HIV-Besonderheiten der Ko-infektion]
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has allowed the incidence of tuberculosis to rise globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is more complex in patients with HIV/AIDS. Sputum smear microscopy is performing poorly in HIV-infected individuals, who are often started on antituberculosis treatment on clinical grounds. The treatment of coinfected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomittantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Current guidelines recommend starting antiretroviral treatment within a few weeks of antituberculosis therapy for patients with CD4 cell counts < 350 cells/μl. © 2011 by Verlag Hans Huber, Hogrefe AG, Bern.