Skeletal muscle repair after micro-damage : effect of ice therapy on satellite cell activation

Van Tubbergh, Karen (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-04)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cryotherapy is one of the popular treatments used to alleviate muscle soreness, especially in the competitive sports arena. However, the therapeutic use of cryotherapy is unsubstantiated because of a lack of proper investigations in the literature, especially a hypothesised effect on muscle recovery. Thus, our aims were to characterise satellite cell (SC) activity in human subjects with delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and to shed light on the effect of cryotherapy on SC activity. DOMS was induced in six male subjects (24 ± 3 years) by completion of a downhill-run (DHR) protocol (5 x 8 min bouts, 2 min rest between bouts) at 70 or 80% of their individual peak treadmill speed. Ice application was applied to only one leg per subject for 3 days: 30 min every 2 hours, 5 times per day. In total 5 muscle biopsies were obtained from each subject: 1 baseline and 4 post-DHR. Post-DHR biopsies: 1 from each leg on day 1 and 7 (1st group, n=3) and 1 from each leg on day 2 and 9 (2nd group, n=3). DOMS was successfully induced as indicated by significant increases in muscle soreness at days 1 and 2 post-DHR (P < 0.01), and creatine kinase activity at day 1 post-DHR (P < 0.01). No difference in muscle soreness was found between treated and untreated legs. SC quiescence and activation were characterised by their expression of the cell surface markers CD34 and CD56 respectively. No significant change in quiescent SC was observed in the untreated or treated legs over time. However, at day 1 post-DHR the number of quiescent SC was significantly lower in the untreated compared with the treated leg (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in activated SC numbers at day 2 post-DHR in the untreated leg, which was sustained up to day 9 post-DHR (P < 0.01). However, no such increase was found in biopsies taken on days 1 and 7. Also, no change was found in the treated leg, however a significant difference between the number of activated SC in untreated and treated legs on days 2 and 9 post-DHR (P < 0.01) was seen. No significant effect of DOMS or ice treatment was observed for the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and myogenin. C2C12 cell cultures induced to differentiate, however, did stain using these antibodies. This is the first study to report an effect of cryotherapy at the tissue level. In conclusion, this study highlights many unanswered questions on the SC response to DOMS at tissue level, and lays a good foundation for future studies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kreoterapie is een van die gewilde behandelings wat gebruik word om spierseerheid te verlig, veral in die kompeterende sport arena, maar die gebruik van kreoterapie is onbevestig as gevolg van ‘n gebrek aan voldoende ondersoeke in die literatuur, veral ‘n hipotese oor die effek op spier-herstel. Ons doelstellings was dus om satellietsel (SC) aktiwiteit te ondersoek in mens proefpersone met vertraagde aanvang spierseerheid (DOMS) en ook om lig te werp op die effek van kreoterapie op SC aktiwiteit. DOMS was in ses mans proefpersone (24 ± 3 jare) geїnduseer deur voltooїng van ‘n afdraend-hardloop (DHR) protokol (5 x 8 min rondtes, 2 min rus tussen rondtes) teen 70 of 80% van elkeen se individuele maksimum trapmeul-spoed. Ys was vir 3 dae op net een been per proefpersoon aangewend: 30 min elke 2 ure, 5 keer per dag. 5 spierbiopsies in totaal was van elke proefpersoon verkry: 1 basislyn en 4 post-DHR. Post-DHR biopsies: 1 van elke been op dae 1 en 7 (1ste groep, n=3) en 1 van elke been op dae 2 en 9 (2de groep, n=3). DOMS was suksesvol geїnduseer soos aangedui deur die betekenisvolle verhogings in spierseerheid op dae 1 en 2 post-HR (P < 0.01) en kreatien kinase aktiwiteit op dag 1 post-DHR (P < 0.01). Geen verskil in spierseerheid is gevind tussen die onbehandelde en behandelde bene nie. SC dormansie en aktivering was gekarakteriseer deur die onderskeidelike uitdrukking van die sel oppervlak merkers CD34 en CD56. Geen betekenisvolle verandering is in SC dormansie in die onbehandelde en behandelde bene waargeneem nie, maar op dag 1 post-DHR was die getal dormante SC betekenisvol laer in die onbehandelde been as in die behandelde been (P < 0.05). Daar was ‘n betekenisvolle verhoging in die getalle geaktiveerde SC op dag 2 post-DHR in die onbehandelde been wat volgehou was tot op dag 9 post-DHR (P < 0.01), maar so ‘n verhoging was nie in biopsies wat op dae 1 en 7 geneem is gevind nie. Daar is ook geen verandering in die behandelde been gevind nie, maar ‘n betekenisvolle verskil in die getal geaktiveerde SC is tussen die onbehandelde en behandelde bene op dae 2 en 9 post-DHR gevind(P < 0.01). Geen betekenisvolle effek van DOMS en ys-aanwending vir die uitdrukking van die miogeniese (myogenic) regulatoriese faktore, MyoD en myogenin, is waargeneem nie. C2C12 sel kulture wat geїnduseer is om te differensieer het wel gekleur vir hierdie antiliggame. Dit is die eerste studie wat ‘n effek van kreoterapie op weefselvlak rapporteer. Ten slotte, hierdie studie beklemtoon baie onbeantwoorde vrae oor die SC respons op DOMS op weefselvlak en dit lê ‘n goeie grondslag neer vir toekomstige studies.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16623
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