The development and evaluation of measurements on spaghetti with diverse quality characteristics

MacGregor, Elizabeth (2005-04)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Pasta manufacturing is a process whereby wheat flour is converted into a shelf-stable food that is more desirable than native wheat flour. It can be fortified and may serve as a valuable source of nutrition in developing countries. Quality measures are of importance in the production process to ensure a consistent and acceptable finished product. Literature provides information on many aspects of wheat types, milling techniques and processing of pasta. Protein content and quality of cultivated wheat varieties is of major importance to produce quality pasta products. Wheat types of lower protein content are more readily available than traditionally used durum wheat. As in all food products, the cost of final products is of major importance. Bread wheat is generally less expensive than durum wheat. However, product quality (and thus acceptability) may be lower. Direct measurements of product quality are currently limited to protein content, moisture content, colour analyses and certain other characteristics measurable in a laboratory, for example mechanical strength and firmness. Direct measurements of defects that may affect final product quality, such as cracks and fissures on the strands of spaghetti, different types of spots and lines on the strands, broken units, units sticking together and odd shapes are not well documented. During the first part of this study, spaghetti quality evaluation techniques were reviewed, improved or developed and thereafter standardised. This developmental research was conducted to establish valid and reliable measures (with a high degree of repeatability) for the evaluation of dry and cooked pasta quality characteristics. A wide variety of available products on the South African market were evaluated for different quality characteristics. From this evaluation standards were drawn up, tested for validity and reliability by means of repeatability. Minimum sample sizes for the evaluation of different quality characteristics were calculated and presented in the study, together with reference photographs that can be used to evaluate spaghetti. This study found that colour evaluation by means of commercially available apparatus needs revision. This study suggests the use of multiple layers when evaluating translucent food products for colour. The occurrence of fissures and flour spots are of importance for the quality of the final product. This study provides a set of valid and reliable measurements for measuring the quality of dry and cooked spaghetti. Simple techniques can therefore be used to detect the presence or absence of these defects. Thereafter an empirical study was conducted to describe the differences between spaghetti prepared from durum and non-durum wheat, dried at different temperatures and at different relative humidity. Spaghetti samples of diverse perceived quality, from different manufacturers, were purchased and evaluated. Standard methods and the newly developed testing methods were used to test whether these methods effectively distinguish between spaghetti of diverse quality, reflecting on the validity of the methods. Correlations were calculated between dependent and independent variables in an attempt to find possible explanations for certain defects or quality differences, and to test certain theories in the literature. Certain relationships between quality characteristics were found, while others were questioned. The most important proven relationships were between protein content and its effects on reducing quality defects such as fissures, breakages and cooking losses. The relationship between ash content and spaghetti colour could not be confirmed in this study. This study confirmed that protein remains one of the most important variables to ensure consistent quality spaghetti.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Pastavervaardiging is ‘n proses waartydens koring meel omskep word in a produk met ‘n stabiele en lang rakleeftyd wat meer gewens is as die oorspronklike koring meel. Pasta kan gefortifiseer word and kan dien as a waardevolle voedingsbron in ontwikkelende lande. Om ‘n konstante en aanvaarbaare finale produk te verseker is kwaliteitmetings gedurende die produksie proses belangrik. Die literatuur voorsien heelwat inligting rakende aspekte van belang vir pastakwaliteit, byvoorbeeld koringtipes, maaltegnieke en die vervaardigingsproses. Proteïninhoud en die kwaliteit daarvan is van groot belang tydens die produksie van hoë kwaliteit pasta. Koringtipes met ‘n laer proteïninhoud is meer geredelik beskikbaar as tradisionele durumkoring. Soos met alle voedselprodukte, is die koste van die finale produk van groot belang. Oor die algemeen verhandel broodkoring teen laer pryse as durumkoring. Die produkkwaliteit en aanvaarbaarheid van pasta vervaardig van broodkoring kan egter laer wees as dié van durumkoring. Direkte metings van produkkwalitiet is tans beperk tot proteïninhoud, voginhoud, kleuranalise en sekere eienskappe meetbaar in ‘n laboratorium, byvoorbeeld meganiese sterkte en fermheid. Die direkte meting van defekte wat finale produkkwaliteit kan beïnvloed, byvoorbeeld barste, krake, meel kolletjies, strepe op spaghetti-eenhede, gebreekte eenhede, eenhede wat aan mekaar kleef en ongewone vorms, is nie goed gedokumenteer nie. Gedurende die eerste gedeelte van hierdie studie, is ‘n oorsig van spaghetti evaluasie tegnieke beskikbaar in die literatuur gdoen, waarna sekeres verbeter is, ander ontwikkel is en finaal gestandariseer is. Hierdie navorsing is uitgevoer om geldige en betroubare metings (met ‘n hoë graad van herhaalbaarheid) vir die evaluasie van droë- en gaar pastakwalitietseienskappe vas te stel. ‘n Wye verskeidenheid van produkte beskikbaar op die Suid-Afrikaanse mark is ge-evalueer ten opsigte van verskillende kwaliteitseienskappe. Vanuit hierdie evaluasies is standaarde saamgestel en getoets vir geldigheid en betroubaarheid deur middel van herhaalbaarheid. ‘n Minimum steekproefgrootte per kwaliteitseienskap is bereken en word vermeld in hierdie studie. Daarmeesaam word verwysingsfoto’s aangebied wat gebruik kan word tydens die evaluasie van spaghetti. Hierdie studie bied a stel geldige en betroubare meting vir die kwaliteit van droe en gaan spaghetti. Eenvoudige tegnieke kan dus gebruik word om die voorkoms van hierdie defekte te meet. Met afloop van die verkennende studie, is ‘n empiriese studie gedoen om die verskille te beskryf tussen pasta vervaardig van durum en brood koring, gedroog teen verskillende temperature en relatiewe humiditeit. Spaghettimonsters met oënskynlike diverse kwaliteit, vervaardig deur verskillende maatskappye, is aangekoop en ge-evalueer. Standaardmetings en nuutontwerpte metings is gebruik om te bevestig of die metings kan onderskei tussen spaghetti met uiteenlopende kwaliteit, wat reflekteer op die geldigheid van die metingsmetodes. Korrelasies is bereken tussen afhanklike en onafhanklike veranderlikes in ‘n poging om moontlike verklarings vir sekere defekte of kwaliteitsverskille te vind, en ook om sekere teoriëe in die literatuur te toets. Die verband tussen sekere kwaliteitseienskappe is bevestig en bewys, terwyl ander bevraagteken was. Die mees belangrike verband was proteïninhoud en die effek daarvan om die voorkoms van defekte, soos barste, gebreekte eenhede en kookverliese te verlaag. Die verband tussen asinhoud en spaghettikleur kon nie in hierdie studie bevestig word nie. Hierdie studie het bevestig dat proteïn die mees belangrike veranderlike is wat oorweeg moet word wanneer ‘n konstante hoë kwaliteit spaghettiproduk vervaardig word. Kleurevaluasie met behulp van kommersieel-beskikbare apparaat vereis hersiening. Hierdie studie stel voor dat tydens kleur evaluasie van voedsel wat lig deurlaatbaar is, dit in veelvoudige lae evalueer moet word. Die voorkoms van defekte soos barste, krake of meel kolletjies is van belang ten opsigte van finale produkkwaliteit. Hierdie studie bied riglyne vir die evaluasie van die genoemde defekte. Die voorkoms van hierdie defekte is van groter belang as die graad waarteen die defek voorkom. Eenvoudige tegnieke kan vervolgens gebruik word om die teenwoordigheid of afwesigheid van hierdie defekte te bepaal.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16613
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