Dietary red palm oil-supplementation offers cardioprotection against Ischaemia/Reperfusion injury : possible cellular mechanisms involved

Esterhuyse, Adriaan Johannes (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-12)

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Activation of the NO-cGMP pathway is associated with myocardial protection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury. However, high-cholesterol diets alter function of this pathway and these alterations have been implicated in both ischaemic/reperfusion injury and the development of ischaemic heart disease. Little is known about the effects of supplements such as Red Palm Oil (RPO) on the myocardial NO-cGMP-signalling pathway. RPO consists of saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids and is rich in antioxidants such as β-carotene and Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols). The aims of this study were: 1) to determine whether dietary RPO-supplemention protects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rats fed a standard rat chow (control) and cholesterol-enriched diets and 2) if so, to investigate possible mechanisms for this protection. Male Long-Evans rats were fed a standard rat chow or a standard rat chow plus cholesterol and/or RPO-supplementation for 6 weeks. Myocardial functional recovery was measured and hearts were freeze-clamped for determination of myocardial phospholipid, cAMP/cGMP concentrations, total myocardial nitric oxide concentrations, lipid hydroperoxide production and superoxide dismutase- and nitric oxide synthase activity in isolated rat hearts subjected to 25 minutes of normothermic total global ischaemia. In addition, the degree of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of RPO-supplementation on caspase-3 activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-cleavage in hearts subjected to ischaemia and reperfusion was also investigated. Our data show that dietary RPO-supplementation protects the hearts of rats on a standard rat chow (control) and hypercholesterolaemic diet against ischaemia/reperfusion injury as reflected by improved aortic output recovery. Increased intracellular cardiomyocyte NO concentrations as observed in control hearts supplemented with RPO after 120 minutes hypoxia may contribute to the elevated cGMP concentration and may confer some of the cardioprotection to the ischaemic/reperfused heart. Although improved functional recovery with RPO-supplementation of a high-cholesterol diet was also associated with an increase in intracellular cardiomyocyte NO production after hypoxia compared to the non-hypoxic conditions, it could not be linked to increased NO-cGMP signalling. These data are in agreement with other studies, which showed that high-cholesterol diet impairs NO-cGMP signalling and confirms our hypothesis that elevated cGMP concentrations may not be the only mechanism of protection. We have also shown that RPOsupplementation caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and PKB, reduced phosphorylation of JNK and attenuation of PARP cleavage, which may contribute to the protection of the cell against apoptosis. Based on our results we propose that the myocardial protection offered by RPO-supplementation of rats on a normal and hypercholesterolaemic diet may be associated with either its antioxidant characteristics and/or changes in the fatty acid composition of the myocardium during ischaemia/reperfusion. Furthermore, we demonstrated for the first time that RPO-supplementation protects the isolated perfused working rat heart during reperfusion from ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury through a MAPK-dependent pathway.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Aktivering van die NO-cGMP sein transduksie pad word geassosieer met miokardiale beskerming teen isgemie/herperfusie skade. Hoë cholesterol diëte verander egter die funksie van die pad en hierdie veranderings speel ‘n rol in beide isgemie/herperfusie besering en die ontwikkeling van isgemiese hartsiekte. Daar is egter min inligting beskikbaar oor die uitwerking van aanvullings soos rooi palm olie (RPO) op die miokardiale NO-cGMP sein transduksie pad. RPO bevat versadigde, mono-onversadigde en poli-onversadigde vetsure en is ryk aan anti-oksidante nl. β-karotene en vitamien E (tokoferole en tokotriënole). Die doelwitte van hierdie studie was: 1) om vas te stel of ‘n RPO-aanvulling beskerming bied teen isgemie/herperfusie besering in rotte wat gevoed is met ‘n standaard rotmengsel (kontrole) en cholesterol-verrykte dieet en 2) indien wel, om moontlike meganismes van beskerming te ondersoek. Long-Evans manlike rotte is vir 6 weke gevoer met ‘n standaard rotmengsel of ‘n standaard rotmengsel plus cholesterol en/of RPO-aanvulling. Miokardiale funksionele herstel is gemeet en harte is gevriesklamp vir die bepaling van miokardiale fosfolipied, cAMP/cGMP, totale stikstofoksied, lipied hidroperoksied, superoksied dismutase en stikstofoksied sintase in geïsoleerde rotharte wat vir 25 minute onderwerp was aan normotermiese totale globale isgemie. Hiermee saam is die graad van fosforilering van ekstrasellulêre sein gereguleerde kinase (ERK), p38 mitogeen-geaktiveerde proteïen kinase (p38 MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminale proteïenkinase (JNK) en proteïen kinase B (PKB/Akt) ondersoek, asook kaspase-3 aktivering en poli (ADP-ribose) polimerase (PARP) kliewing in harte blootgestel aan isgemie en herperfusie. Ons resultate toon dat RPO-aanvulling van rotte op ‘n normale en hipercholesterolemiese dieet die hart beskerm soos getoon deur verbeterde herstel van aortiese uitset. Verhoogde intrasellulêre miokardiale NO vlakke in kontrole harte met ‘n RPO-aanvulling wat blootgestel was aan 120 minute hipoksie, mag bygedra het tot die verhoogde cGMP vlakke en beskerming van die hart tydens isgemie en herperfusie. Alhoewel verbeterde funksionele herstel met RPO-aanvulling van ‘n hoë cholesterol dieet ook geassosieer is met ‘n toename in intrasellulêre miokardiale NO produksie ná hipoksiese toestande, kon dit nie verbind word met verhoogde aktivering van die NOcGMP sein transduksie pad nie. Hierdie resultate stem ooreen met ander studies wat aangetoon het dat hoë-cholesterol diëte die NO-cGMP seinpad onderdruk. Hierdie bevinding bevestig ons hipotese dat verhoogde cGMP vlakke moontlik nie die enigste beskermingsmeganisme is nie. Ons resultate het ook gewys dat RPO-aanvulling fosforilering van p38 en PKB/Akt verhoog, fosforilering van JNK verminder en PARP kliewing onderdruk. Dit dui op beskerming van die sel teen apoptose. Ons resultate dui aan dat die miokardiale beskerming wat RPO-dieet aanvulling bied moontlik geassosieer kan word met sy anti-oksidant eienskap en/of veranderinge in die vetsuur samestelling van die miokardium tydens isgemie/herperfusie. Ons het ook vir die eerste keer bewys dat RPO-aanvulling die geïsoleerde geperfuseerde werkende rothart gedurende herperfusie beskerm teen isgemie/herperfusie besering deur die aktivering en/of deaktivering van die MAPK afhanklike pad.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16514
This item appears in the following collections: