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dc.contributor.advisorZaahl, M. G.en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorWarnich, L.en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorLouw, A.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMcGregor, Nathaniel Wadeen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherUniversity of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Genetics.
dc.date.accessioned2009-11-26T06:33:25Zen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2010-06-01T08:29:36Z
dc.date.available2009-11-26T06:33:25Zen_ZA
dc.date.available2010-06-01T08:29:36Z
dc.date.issued2009-12en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/1648
dc.descriptionThesis (MSc (Genetics))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Oesophageal cancer (OC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the world with approximately 300 000 new cases reported each year. OC may be characterized into two forms with 90% of cases presenting as squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) and the remaining 10% as adenocarcinoma (ADC). Several factors have been attributed to the development of OC, including oesphageal injury and/or irritation, chronic inflammation and excess iron associated with enhanced tumour growth. The HAMP gene codes for a 25 amino-acid protein found to be primarily expressed in the liver and crucial to regulation of bodily iron status. Defects occurring in the HAMP gene could therefore lead to the dysregulation of the gene, resulting in an iron overload status. Iron overload is a previously described risk factor in the development of various cancers, including OC, and therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether dysregulation of the HAMP gene may be involved in the cancer phenotype exhibition. The study cohort comprised of 48 unrelated patients presenting with SCC and a control group of 51 healthy, unrelated population-matched individuals. Mutation detection techniques included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, heteroduplex single-stranded conformation polymorphism (HEX-SSCP) analysis and bi-directional semi-automated DNA sequencing analysis. Screening of the 5’ regulatory region (5’UTR) of the HAMP gene revealed one known (-582A/G) and two novel (-188C/T and -429G/T) variants with the -429G/T variant showing statistically significant reduction in expression in patients relative to controls. Iron parameters were correlated between patient and control cohorts, as well as for variant presence and absence within individuals. Luciferase reporter constructs were used to investigate the functional implications of the presence of a variant on HAMP gene expression, and how these results correlated to the iron parameter statistics obtained. Luciferase reporter assay results indicated the -188C/T and -429G/T variants to result in under-, and the -582A/G variant to result in over-expression at the basal level, relative to the respective wild-type sequence constructs. Correlation of the luciferase data with the iron parameter statistics, indicate the -429G/T variant to be coupled to significantly higher levels of ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) and significantly lower levels of serum-iron and transferrin when compared to individuals without the variant. Considering only the patient group, the presence of the -188C/T and -429G/T variants were coupled to significantly lower levels of transferrin in patients with either variant, compared to patients without. The variants found within the HAMP promoter region are therefore able to alter gene regulation to an extent where iron parameters deviate between healthy and OC afflicted individuals, and also between patients with and without a variant. This dysregulation in iron homeostasis may play a role in the development and/ or progression of OC. Characterisation of the 5’ UTR of the HAMP gene may contribute to linking iron regulation to the establishment of an effective screening program, facilitating the early detection of OC.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Slukdermkanker (SK) is die sesde grootste oorsaak van kanker-verwante sterftes in die wêreld, met sowat 300 000 nuwe gevalle wat aangemeld word elke jaar. SK kan geklassifiseer word in twee vorme, waar 90% van die gevalle plaveisel-selkarsinoom (SSC) vorm en die oorblywende 10%, adenokarsinoom (ADC). Verskeie faktore word toegeskryf aan die ontwikkeling van SK, insluitend slukderm beserings en/ of irritasie, chroniese inflammasie en oormatige ystervlakke wat geassosieer word met verhoogde gewasgroei. Die HAMP geen kodeer vir 'n 25 aminosuur proteïen wat hoofsaaklik in die lewer uitgedruk word en noodsaaklik is vir die regulering van ystervlakke in die liggaam. Defekte wat in die HAMP geen voorkom kan dus die onreëlmatige regulering van die geen tot gevolg hê, wat lei tot yster-oorlading. Yster-oorlading is voorheen beskryf as ‘n risiko faktor in die ontwikkeling van verskillende vorme van kanker, insluitend SK en gevolglik was die doel van hierdie studie om te bepaal of die wanregulering van die HAMP geen betrokke mag wees by die uitdrukking van die kanker fenotipe. Die studiepopulasie het bestaan uit 48 onverwante pasiënte met SSC en ‘n kontrole-groep van 51 gesonde, onverwante soortgelyke individue. Die mutasie opsporingstegnieke wat gebruik is, het polimerase kettingreaksie (PKR) amplifisering, heterodupleks enkelstring-konformasie polimorfisme (HEX-SSCP) analise en bidireksionele semi-outomatiese DNS volgordebepaling-analise van die geïdentifiseerde variante ingesluit. Sifting van die 5’ regulerende area (5'UTR) van die HAMP geen het een bekende (-582A/G) en twee nuwe (-188C/T en -429G/T) variante opgelewer, met die -429G/T variant wat statisties beduidend onderdruk is in pasiënt uitdrukkings vlakke relatief tot 'n gesonde kontole-groep. Yster-parameters van alle pasiënt en kontole individue is gekorreleerd tussen pasiënt en kontrole groepe, sowel as vir teenwoordigheid of afwesigheid van variante in elke individu. Luciferase verklikker konstrukte is gebruik om die funksionele implikasies van die teenwoordigheid van ‘n variant op HAMP geenuitdrukking te ondersoek, en hierdie resultate te korreleer met yster-parameter statistieke wat verkry is. Luciferase verklikkertoetse dui aan dat die -188C/T en -429G/T variante tot verminderde, en die -582A/G variant lei tot die verhoogte uitdrukking op die basale vlak lei, relatief tot die onderskeie wilde-tipe konstukte. Korrelasie van die luciferase data met die yster-parameter statistieke, dui aan dat die -429G/T-variant gekoppel is aan aansienlik hoër vlakke van feritien en C-reaktiewe proteïen (CRP) en beduidend laer vlakke van serum-yster en transferrien in vergelyking is met individue sonder die variant. Met oorweging van slegs die pasiënt-groep, is die teenwoordigheid van die -188C/T en -429G/T variante beduidend gekoppel aan laer vlakke van transferrien in pasiënte met die variant, in vergelyking met pasiënte daarsonder. Variante binne die HAMP promotor is dus in staat om geenregulasie te verander tot so 'n mate dat die yster-parameters afwyk tussen gesonde en SK geaffekteerde individue, sowel as tussen pasiënte met en sonder ’n variant. Hierdie wanregulering in yster homeostase kan 'n rol speel in die ontwikkeling en/ of die progressie van SK. Karakterisering van die 5’ regulerende area van die HAMP geen kan grootliks bydra om ysterregulasie te verbind met die implementering van ‘n effektiewe siftingsprogram, en sodoende die vroeë opsporing van SK fasiliteer.en_ZA
dc.language.isoenen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch
dc.subjectHAMPen_ZA
dc.subjectHepcidinen_ZA
dc.subjectOesophageal canceren_ZA
dc.subjectDissertations -- Geneticsen
dc.subjectTheses -- Geneticsen
dc.subject.lcshIron -- Metabolismen_ZA
dc.subject.lcshEsophagus -- Cancer -- South Africa -- Genetic aspectsen_ZA
dc.subject.lcshBlacks -- Diseases -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.titleCharacterization of the promoter region of the HAMP gene implicated in iron metabolism and its possible association with Oesophageal cancer in the black South African populationen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderUniversity of Stellenbosch


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