Organic acids as potential growth promoters in abalone culture

Goosen, Neill Jurgens (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2007-12)

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The first successful captive spawning of the South African abalone Haliotis midae occurred in the 1980’s and subsequently the commercial abalone industry in South Africa has developed, with an estimated investment of US$ 12 million and annual output of 500 to 800 tons by 2001, making South Africa the biggest abalone producer outside of Asia. Natural kelp is currently the major feed and the development of a suitable substitute, and improved disease management in abalone culture are seen as the primary factors limiting expansion of the industry in South Africa. Further, abalone growth rates are very slow and improvements in growth rate will lead to shortened production times with benefits to producers. Diseases in aquaculture have traditionally been combated using antibiotics as treatment (therapeutic usage) and preventative measure (prophylactic usage). In terrestrial livestock management, antibiotics are also used as growth promoters. The use of antibiotics in aquaculture has recently sparked concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance in pathogens of humans and aquaculture organisms, and alternative strategies to using antibiotics mainly focus on manipulating the microbial composition in the host organism, in order to establish a beneficial microbial population to prevent disease. The role that organic acids and their salts can play as growth promoters in the South African abalone Haliotis midae, and as manipulators of the gut microflora of this species of abalone was investigated and compared to the effects of antibiotics. Three different treatments were tested against a negative control and a positive control containing 30ppm avilamycin, a commercial antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) used in the pig and poultry industry. The 3 treatments consisted of 1% acetic and 1% formic acid (treatment AF), 1% sodium benzoate and 1% potassium sorbate (treatment SBPS), and 1% benzoic and 1% sorbic acid (treatment BS). Three different experiments were conducted to test the effects of the different acids and salts. The first experiment was under controlled optimum water temperature conditions (16.5ºC), another at elevated water temperature (20.5ºC) in order to test response during temperature stress conditions, and the final trial was conducted under uncontrolled practical production conditions. In an attempt to establish the mechanism by which the treatments have their effects (if any), the composition of the gut microflora of the abalone was monitored. It was found that the organic acids and salts investigated can enhance the growth rate of Haliotis midae in the size class 23 mm to 33 mm mean length significantly when compared to both control treatments. It was further found that the tested AGP had no effect on growth rate. None of the treatments had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR), Incidence cost (IC) or feed intake. It could also not be shown that the treatments affected the intestinal microflora of the abalone, although this might be due to inadequate microbiological methods. The mechanism by which the acids and salts have their effects could not be established. It was found that the animals in the controlled system underwent an initial adaptation period, which led to improvement in specific growth rate (SGR), FCR and IC as the experiment progressed during the controlled optimal conditions experiment. Large differences in FCR and IC was seen for controlled optimal conditions and production conditions which means that there is still a large scope for developing methods to improve practical on-farm feed utilisation by abalone. SGR, FCR and IC were negatively influenced by raising water temperature from 16.5ºC to 20.5ºC. The composition of the gut microflora of the abalone also changed significantly after the water temperature was raised. It appears that animal weight gain and shell growth respond differently to changing water temperatures, which is reflected in a change in Fulton condition factor. A relationship between the length and weight of abalone between 15 mm and 47 mm was established and it was found that Haliotis midae does not follow an isometric growth relationship. This relation can be used as a tool to improve farm management and therefore also profitability. Various micro-organisms were isolated from Haliotis midae during the trial, but their relationship and interaction with abalone is not clear. Clear dominance by specific species of bacteria was observed during certain periods. The current research has clearly showed the potential of organic acids and their salts to act as growth promoters in the South African abalone Haliotis midae, with application in both the local aquaculture and feed manufacturing industries. The possibility further exists that some aspects of the current research can be adapted to be applicable in other abalone species and even in other aquaculture species.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die eerste suksesvolle aanteel van die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoen Haliotis midae in gevangeskap is in die 1980’s gerapporteer, waarna ‘n suksesvolle akwakultuur industrie ontwikkel het met ‘n geskatte produksievermoë van 500 tot 800 ton en kapitaalbelegging van US$ 12 miljoen in 2001. Suid-Afrika is tans die grootste perlemoen-produserende land wat buite Asië geleë is. Die ontwikkeling van ‘n geskikte alternatiewe voedselbron vir natuurlike kelp (tans die algemeenste voedselbron wat gebruik word in die kweek van perlemoen), sowel as verbeterde siektebestryding word tans gesien as die hooffaktore wat verdere uitbreiding in die Suid-Afrikaanse industrie beperk. Perlemoen het verder baie stadige groeitempo’s en enige verbetering in hierdie verband sal produksietye verkort en dus produsente bevoordeel. Siektes in akwakultuur word tradisioneel bestry deur gebruik te maak van antibiotiese behandeling (terapeutiese bestryding) of van voorkomende behandeling (profilaktiese bestryding). In gewone diereproduksie-sisteme (bv. varke en hoenders) word antibiotika ook gebruik as groeistimulante. Die gebruik van antibiotika in akwakultuur het onlangs die bekommernis laat ontstaan dat sekere menslike en dierepatogene weerstand kan ontwikkel teen sommige middels, wat die behoefte laat ontstaan het om siektebestryding sonder die gebruik van antibiotika te ontwikkel. Alternatiewe strategieë fokus grootliks daarop om die samestelling van die mikrobiese bevolking van die gasheer te manipuleer en sodoende ‘n voordelige bevolking in die gasheer te vestig, wat dan siektes voorkom. Daar is ondersoek ingestel na die rol van organiese sure en hul soute as groeistimulante en manipuleerders van die mikrobiese bevolking in die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoen Haliotis midae. Drie verskillende behandelings is getoets en vergelyk met beide ‘n negatiewe- en positiewe kontrole (wat 30 dele per miljoen van ‘n kommersiële antibiotiese groeistimulant bevat het). Die drie formulasies het onderskeidelik bestaan uit ‘n mengsel van 1% etanoëen 1% metanoësuur (behandeling AF), 1% bensoë- en 1% sorbiensuur (behandeling BS) en 1% natriumbensoaat en 1% kaliumsorbaat (behandeling SBPS). Om die effekte van hierdie formulasies te toets, is daar 3 proewe gedoen. Een proef is gedoen onder temperatuurbeheerde toestande teen ‘n optimum watertemperatuur van 16.5ºC terwyl ‘n ander gedoen is onder onbeheerde, praktiese produksie-omstandighede. ‘n Verdere beheerde proef is gedoen teen ‘n watertemperatuur van 20.5ºC om die effek van die verskillende formulasies te toets wanneer die diere aan temperatuur-spanning blootgestel word. Die samestelling van die mikrobiese bevolking in die dunderm van die perlemoen is deurentyd gemonitor in ‘n poging om die meganisme vas te stel waarvolgens die sure en soute hul effek het, indien daar enige effek waargeneem word. Daar is gevind dat die onderskeie sure en suursoute die groeitempo van Haliotis midae met ‘n gemiddelde lengte van 23 mm tot 33 mm beduidend kan verhoog in vergelyking met die groeitempo’s van beide kontroles. Daar is gevind dat die antibiotiese groeistimulant geen effek het op die groei van die diere nie en dat geen behandelings ‘n beduidende effek op voeromsetting, voerkoste of voerinname gehad het nie. Daar kon nie bewys word dat enige van die formulasies of die antibiotika ‘n effek gehad het op die mikrobes in die spysverteringskanaal van die perlemoene in die sisteem nie, alhoewel die gebrek aan ‘n effek moontlik toegeskryf kan word aan die onakkurate en onvoldoende mikrobiologiese metodes wat gebruik is tydens die studie. Die meganisme waarvolgens die sure werk kon nie vasgestel word nie. Daar is verder gevind dat die diere in die temperatuur-beheerde eksperiment aanvaklik deur ‘n aanpassingsperiode gegaan het, wat tot gevolg gehad het dat die spesifieke groeitempo, voeromsetting en voerkoste verbeter het met die verloop van die eksperiment. Daar is groot verskille gevind in die voeromsetting van beheerde optimale toestande en onbeheerde produksietoestande, wat impliseer dat daar nog baie ruimte en geleenthede is om metodes te ontwikkel wat beter voeromsetting bewerkstellig tydens perlemoenproduksie. Spesifieke groeitempo, voeromsetting en voerkoste is nadelig beïnvloed toe die watertemperatuur verhoog is vanaf 16.5ºC na 20.5ºC. Die samestelling van die mikrobiese bevolking in die spysverteringskanaal van die perlemoen het ook beduidende veranderinge ondergaan tydens hierdie temperatuur verhoging. Dit wil voorkom asof die lengtegroei van die dop en die toename in massa verskillend reageer op ‘n verandering in watertemperatuur en hierdie effek word weerspieël in die verandering in Fulton-kondisiefaktor. ‘n Verwantskap tussen totale doplengte en totale gewig van Haliotis midae kon vasgestel word vir diere tussen 15 mm en 47 mm en daar is gewys dat H. midae nie ‘n isometriese groeipatroon volg nie. Hierdie verwantskap kan aangewend word tydens produksiebestuur om produksie te verbeter en daardeur ook winsgewendheid te verhoog. Verskeie mikrobes is tydens die verloop van die proef geïsoleer, maar die rol van en interaksie tussen hierdie mikrobes en die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoen is nie duidelik nie. Sekere bakterieë het die mikrobiese bevolking in die spysverteringskanaal van die perlemoen in hierdie proef oorheers tydens sekere groeiperiodes. Die huidige navorsing het duidelik aangetoon dat organiese sure en hul soute as groeistimulante kan optree in die Suid-Afrikaanse perlemoen Haliotis midae, met toepassings in die plaaslike akwakultuur- en voervervaardigins-industrieë. Dit beskik verder oor die potensiaal om aangepas te word sodat dit toepaslik is in ander perlemoenspesies en selfs ander akwakultuur organismes.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16416
This item appears in the following collections: