Deurlopende assessering in die wiskunde-klaskamer

Pfeiffer, Cerenus R. (2003-04)

Thesis (MEd)--University of Stellenbosch, 2003.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Traditionally the success of learners in South Africa was based on one examination. The education depended on memorization, at the expense of other important skills such as critical thinking, problem solving and analysis. The modern working situation requires learners with critical thinking skills who can solve problems. Traditionally learners were seen as ‘empty vessels’ and their existing knowledge was not considered. The traditional assessment methods were not good enough to give teachers the information they needed to know about the learner. The education therefore requires reconstruction. In 1997, education in South Africa experienced a paradigm shift with the introduction of Curriculum 2005 and Outcomes-Based Education (OBE). The education system has been systematically reconstructed since then. In 2001, Curriculum 2005 was implemented in the senior phase. Along with this paradigm shift came a change in learner assessment. The Further Education and Training band will only be influenced by the curriculum in 2004, but since 1996, teachers have been instructed to assess learners continuously. The Institute for Mathematics and Science Teaching of the University of Stellenbosch (IMSTUS) was contracted in 2000 to implement continuous assessment (CASS) in Mathematics in Grade 10 – 12 in the Northern Cape. The project is known as the CASS project. One of the aims of this project is to motivate teachers to implement the new guidelines of the Northern Cape Education department for continuous assessment. The research is firstly an empirical investigation of the perceptions of teachers in the IMSTUS project being conducted in the Northern Cape on continuous assessment. Secondly, it is an investigation to determine whether teachers are convinced that alternative/formative assessment can improve teaching and learning. It focuses on whether continuous assessment is regarded by teachers as an educational tool or a bureaucratic process. A questionnaire was given to teachers who participated in this project. The questionnaire consisted of questions on teachers’ perceptions on continuous assessment, the rationale for assessment, how assessment and feedback can be done, and the equity in the assessment of Mathematics. There were 34 questionnaires of which 31 (91%) were returned. Twenty-three of the responses were from schools in the Kimberley district, while the other 8 were from the De Aar district. The participating schools were from traditional advantaged, as well as disadvantaged communities. The conclusions of the research are that the participating teachers have the following perceptions on continuous assessment: 1. Continuous assessment is used for: • grading purposes and for year marks, in other words for bureaucratic purposes; • the improvement of teaching, learning, and for diagnostic purposes, to identify learners’ misconceptions and strengths -in other words, it can also be used for educational purposes. 2. The process of continuous assessment does not reflect learners’ real mathematical potential. 3. Some respondents were of the opinion that the process of continuous assessment does however reflect learners’ real mathematical potential. 4. Continuous assessment is time-consuming. 5. Continuous assessment must be systematical. The way in which teachers implement continuous assessment testifies to a summative process, although they in a way learners formative assess. This does not improve formative assessment and therefore is it exclusively a bureaucratic process.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die sukses van leerders in Suid-Afrika het tradisioneel op ’n eenmalige eksamen berus. Die onderwys was te lank op memorisering geskoei, ten koste van ander belangrike vaardighede soos kritiese denke, probleemoplossing en analisering. Die hedendaagse werksomstandighede vereis leerders wat krities kan dink en wat probleemoplossings kan hanteer. Tradisioneel is leerders se bestaande kennis nie in ag geneem nie en die tradisionele assesseringmetodes het onderwysers nie genoeg informasie gegee wat hulle van die leerders moet weet nie. Die onderwys verg dus rekonstruksie. In 1997 het onderwys in Suid-Afrika ’n paradigmaverskuiwing ondergaan met die invoering van Kurrikulum 2005 en Uitkomsgebaseerde Onderwys (UGO). Die onderwys is stelselmatig gerekonstrueer en Kurrikulum 2005 is in 2001 in die senior fase geïmplementeer. Hierdie kurrikulumverandering bring ook ’n verandering in assessering mee. Die Voortgesette Onderwys en Opleidingbaan sal eers in 2004 deur die Kurrikulum beïnvloed word, maar onderwysers moet reeds sedert 1996 leerders deurlopend assesseer. Die Instituut vir Wiskunde en Wetenskaponderwys van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch (IWWOUS) is in 2000 gekontrakteer om deurlopende assessering (DASS) in Wiskunde in Graad 10 - 12 in die Noord-Kaap te implementeer. Die projek staan bekend as die DASS-projek. Een van die doelstellings van hierdie projek was om onderwysers te motiveer om die Noord-Kaap Onderwysdepartement se nuwe riglyne vir deurlopende assessering te implementeer. Die navorsing is eerstens ’n empiriese ondersoek na die persepsies wat die onderwysers in die IWWOUS-projek in die Noord-Kaap oor deurlopende assessering het. Tweedens is dit ’n ondersoek of onderwysers oortuig is dat alternatiewe/formatiewe assesssering onderrig en leer kan bevorder. Dit fokus of deurlopende assessering ’n opvoedkundige of burokratiese proses vir hierdie onderwysers is. ’n Vraelys is aan onderwysers, betrokke by die projek, gegee. Die vraelys het vrae bevat oor onderwysers se persepsies oor deurlopende assessering, die rasionaal vir assessering, hoe assessering en terugvoering gedoen word en gelykberegtiging in die assessering van Wiskunde. Daar is 34 vraelyste versprei waarvan 31 (91%) terugbesorg was. 23 van die vraelyste was van skole in die Kimberley-streek, terwyl die ander 8 vraelyste in die De Aar-streek was. Die deelnemende skole kom uit die tradisioneel bevoordeelde sowel as benadeelde gemeenskappe. Onderhoude is met 10 onderwysers in die Kimberley-streek en 2 onderwysers in die De Aar-streek gevoer. Die bevindinge van die navorsing is dat die deelnemende onderwysers die volgende persepsies oor deurlopende assessering het : 1. Deurlopende assessering word gebruik vir • bevorderingsdoeleindes en vir jaarpunte, met ander woorde vir burokratiese doeleindes; • die verbetering van onderrig en leer en diagnostiese doeleindes om leerders se wankonsepte en sterkpunte te identifiseer. Deurlopende assessering word dus ook vir opvoedkundige doeleindes gebruik. 2. Die proses van deurlopende assessering weerspieël nie leerders se werklike wiskundige vermoëns nie. 3. Die proses van deurlopende assessering weerspieël ook leerders se wiskundige vermoëns. 4. Deurlopende assessering is tydrowend. 5. Deurlopende assessering moet sistematies wees. Deurlopende assessering soos deur hierdie onderwysers geïmplementeer, is ’n summatiewe proses, alhoewel hulle tog in ’n mate hulle leerders formatief assesseer. Dit verbeter egter nie formatiewe assessering nie en daarom is dit uitsluitlik ’n burokratiese proses.

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