Alternatives to replace antibiotics in broiler diets : effects on protein utilization and production performance

Kritzinger, Magdel (2008-12)

Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2008.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Different substances were evaluated and compared to an antibiotic, in terms of their effect on nitrogen - and amino acid digestibilities. Two digestibility trials and one performance trial were conducted. Trials one and two apparent nitrogen (AND)- and amino acid (AAD) digestibilities were determined from digesta collected at the terminal ileum (ileal digestibility method). In Trial 3 the substances were evaluated in terms of their potential to improve production performance. Broilers were fed a maizesoya based diet throughout the three trails. In the first trial, garlic and a commercial prebiotic (Bio-Mos®), were tested and compared in terms of AND and AAD, to an antibiotic (doxycyclin, Doxyvete-SOS). A starter and finisher diet were fed as either mash or pellets. The garlic was included at 8g/kg, 13g/kg and 18g/kg to the starter and finisher diets. Bio-Mos® was added at 1g/kg, 2g/kg and 3g/kg to the starter diet, and 0.5g/kg, 1g/kg and 1.5g/kg to the finisher diet. The doxycyclin was added at 0.3 g/kg. None of the treatments had any beneficial effects in terms of AND. Feeding a pellet seem to have some negative effects in terms of AND. In general most of the treatments did not show any improvement in AAD at any determination period (day 21, 28 or 35). At day 21 and day 35, the mash diet supplemented with 18g/kg garlic had a negative effect on AAD, when compared to the negative and positive control. It doesn’t seem that feeding either a mash or a pellet had an influence on the effects exerted by the different treatments. In the second trial the influence of Bio-Mos®, a blend of organic acids, probiotics and electrolytes (Acid-Pak 4-way®) and a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) were evaluated and compared in terms of AAD and AND, to the effect of an antibiotic, doxycyclin. The starter and finisher diets were fed as a mash. Bio-Mos® was included at 1g/kg, 2g/kg, and 3g/kg in the starter diet, and at 0.5g/kg, 1g/kg, 1.5g/kg in the finisher diet, respectively. Acid-Pak 4-way® was included at 0.4g/kg, 1g/kg and 1.6g/kg for both the starter and finisher diets. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were allocated at 3g/kg, 3.6g/kg, 4.2g/kg for the starter diet, and 2.1g/kg, 2.7g/kg and 3.4g/kg for the finisher diet. An antibiotic, doxycyclin, was included at 0.3 g/kg. With AND, no treatment had any significant effect for the entire experimental period. At day 21, the treatment supplemented with MCT (3.4g/kg) had the most significant beneficial effect on AAD, when compared to the negative- and positive controls, as it increased AAD for the majority of the amino acids. The treatment with Acid-Pak 4-way® (1g/kg) had the most significant negative effect on AAD when compared to the positive control. At day 28, the treatments with Bio-Mos® (0.5g/kg and 1.5g/kg) and Acid-Pak 4-way® (0.4g/kg) had the most significant beneficial effect on AAD when compared to the positive control. It increased AAD for more than half of the 17 amino acids evaluated. The treatment supplemented with MCT (2.7g/kg) has shown the most significant negative effect on AAD, when compared to the positive control. In the third trial the effect of Bio-Mos®, Acid-Pak 4-way® and MCT on production performance was evaluated, and compared to the effects of the presence or absence of doxycyclin. Body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured. The starter and finisher diets were fed as a mash. Bio-Mos®, MCT and Acid-Pak 4-way® were included at 3.0g/kg, 4.2g/kg and 1.6g/kg, respectively in the starter and finisher diets. Birds were weighed (per pen) on arrival and on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35. Feed intake (FI) per pen was measured at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35, and mortality was recorded daily. In terms of BWG, Acid-Pak 4-way® had a higher BWG, when compared to the negative control, Bio-Mos® and MCT. It can be concluded that Bio-Mos®, Acid-Pak 4-way®, as well as MCT can be a possible alternatives to antibiotic supplementation. These three treatments did not necessary prove to be more effective than antibiotics, but are definitely competitive alternatives.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskillende behandelings is geëvalueer en vergelyk met ‘n antimikrobiese produk, in terme van hul uitwerking op stikstof - en aminosuur verteerbaarhede. Twee verteringstudies en produksieprestasie studie is uitgevoer. In die eerste twee studies is die skynbare stikstof (AND)- en aminosuur (AAD) verteringskoöeffisiënte bepaal deur gebruik te maak van digesta wat by die terminale ileum ingesamel is (ileale verteringsmetode). In die derde studie is die produksie prestasie van braaikuikens op ‘n gebalanseerde metaboliseerbare energie (AME) rantsoen, soos beïnvloed deur die verskillende behandelings, geëvalueer. In die eerste studie is knoffel en ‘n kommersiële prebiotikum (Bio-Mos®) geëvalueer en met ‘n antibiotikum (doksisiklien, Doxyveto-SOS) in terme van AND en AAD vergelyk. Beginner- en afrondingsrantsoene is as ‘n meel of pille gevoer. Die knoffel is teen 8g/kg, 13g/kg en 18g/kg in die rantsoen ingesluit. Bio-Mos® is teen 1g/kg, 2g/kg en 3g/kg in die beginner rantsoen en teen 0.5g/kg, 1g/kg en 1.5g/kg in die afrondingsrantsoen, ingesluit. Die antibiotikum is teen 0.3g/kg in beide rantsoene ingesluit. Geen van die behandelings het enige positiewe invloed op AND gehad nie. Deur ‘n verpilde rantsoen te voer het sekere negatiewe invloed op AND gehad. Oor die algemeen het geen behandelings enige positiewe invloed op AAD gehad nie. Op dag 21 en 35 het die insluiting van knoffel teen 18g/kg in ’n meel rantsoen ’n negatiewe invloed op AAD gehad, wanneer dit met die negatiewe- en positiewe kontroles vergelyk is. Dit blyk nie dat om ‘n pil of meel te voer enige invloed op die invloede van die verskillende behandelings gehad het nie. In die tweede studie is Bio-Mos®, ‘n organiese suur (Acid-Pak 4-way®) en ‘n medium-ketting trigliseried (MCT) geëvalueer en met ‘n antbiotikum, doksisiklien (Doxyveto-SOS) in terme van AND en AAD, vergelyk. Beginner- en afrondingsrantsoene is gevoer as ‘n meel. Bio-Mos® is teen 1g/kg, 2g/kg, and 3g/kg in die beginner rantsoen en teen 0.5g/kg, 1g/kg, 1.5g/kg in die afrondingsrantsoen, ingesluit. Acid-Pak 4-way® is teen 0.4g/kg, 1g/kg en 1.6g/kg vir die beginner –en afrondingsrantsoene ingesluit. Die MCT is teen 3g/kg, 3.6g/kg, 4.2g/kg in die beginner rantsoen en teen 2.1g/kg, 2.7g/kg en 3.4g/kg in die afrondingsrantsoen ingesluit. Die antibiotikum is ingesluit teen 0.3g/kg. Geen behandelings het enige betekenisvolle invloed in terme van AND gehad nie. Op dag 21 het MCT (3.4g/kg), in vergelyking met die negatiewe- en positiewe kontrole, die grootste positiewe invloed op AAD gehad. Acid-Pak 4-way® (1g/kg) het, in vergelyking met die positiewe kontrole, ‘n positiewe invloed gehad op AAD. Op dag 28, het Bio-Mos® (0.5g/kg en 1.5g/kg) en Acid-Pak 4-way® (0.4g/kg) die grootste positiewe invloed op AAD gehad. Die behandeling met MCT (2.7g/kg) het die mees negatiewe invloed op AAD gehad. In die derde studie is die insluiting van Bio-Mos®, Acid-Pak 4-way® en MCT getoets om die invloed op braaikuiken produksie prestasie te evalueer, en te vergelyk met die invloed van die insluiting of afwesigheid van ‘n antibiotikum. Liggaamsmassa (BW), liggaamsmassa toename (BWG), voerinname (FI) en voeromsetverhouding (FCR) is gemeet. Beginner- en afrondings rantsoene is gevoer as ‘n meel. Bio-Mos®, MCT en Acid-Pak 4-way® is onderskeidelik teen 3.0g/kg, 4,2g/kg en 1.6g/kg in die rantsoen ingesluit. Die kuikens is met aankoms (per hok) geweeg, asook op dae 7, 14, 21, 28, 35. Voerinname per hok is gemeet op dae 7, 14, 21, 28 en 35. Mortaliteite is daagliks aangeteken. Die insluiting van Acid-Pak 4-way® het in vergelyking met die negatiewe kontrole, Bio-Mos® en MCT insluiting ‘n hoër BWG tot gevolg gehad. Die gevolgtrekking wat gemaak kan word is dat Bio-Mos®, Acid-Pak 4-way® en MCT gebruik kan word as ‘n moontlike alternatief vir antibiotika insluiting. Hierdie drie behandelings was nie noodwending meer effektief as die antibiotika nie, maar het wel bewys dat dit kompeterende alternatiewe is.

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