The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation on the C economy, growth and nutrition of young grapevines

Mortimer, Peter Edward (2004-04)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) C-costs in grapevines were investigated. Since both dormant vines and AM colonisation rely on stored C for initial growth, AM colonisation costs would therefore compete with plant growth for available C reserves. The aims of this study were to assess the host C economy during AM development and the subsequent C-costs of N and P uptake, as well as the effects of C costs on host growth. This was evaluated in two separate experiments; one assessing the symbiotic influence on the C costs of fungal establishment and nutritional benefits, whilst the other one evaluated the effects of the symbiosis on host growth and nutrient productivities. This study has shown that AM acts as a C sink, competing with the host for available C. Past work on the AM sink effect has focused mainly on the movement of photosynthetic C below ground to support the AM fungus. This however, does not take into account the effect that stored C will have on the C economy of the plant and symbiosis. The role of stored C becomes even more crucial when working with deciduous plants that rely on stored C for new growth at start of a growing season. It has been reported that stored C in AM plants is remobilized at the start of a growing season and then the C reserves are refilled towards the end of the season, when the plants enter dormancy. The initial costs of AM fungal colonisation were borne by the above-ground C reserves, at the expense of new growth in host plants. These costs were offset once the plateau phase was reached, and the depleted reserves started to refill. Once established, the active symbiosis imposed a considerable below ground C sink on host reserves. In spite of these costs, the improved P nutrition of AM roots was achieved with a more efficient C-use. This concurs with other findings, that of the belowground C allocated to AM roots, a greater part is used by AM respiration and a smaller part for P uptake. The C costs of the AM fungal phase of rapid development can be seen as negative to root growth and shoot development. These negative effects may continue for a period of time, even during the plateau phase of fungal development. Once the AM symbiosis is fully established, the host growth and development is then improved to a greater extent than in non-AM plants. From this study it can be concluded that AM growth directly competes with host development, but the symbionts revert to a beneficial partnership once it is fully established.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die C koste van arbuskulêre mikorisa (AM) in wingerdstokke is ondersoek. Beide rustende wingerdstokke en AM koloniseering is afhanklik van gestoorde C vir aanvanklike groei. AM kolonisering sou dus met plantgroei kompeteer vir beskikbare C reserwes. Die doelstellings van hierdie ondersoek was eerstens om die C-ekonomie van die gasheer tydens AM ontwikkeling en die gevolglike Ckostes van N en P opname te bepaal en tweedens sowel as die invloed van C veranderings op gasheergroei vas te stel. Hierdie is in twee afsonderlike eksperimente ondersoek: een om die simbiotiese invloed op die C-kostes van swam-vestiging en voedingsvoordele te bepaal, terwyl die ander die uitwerking van simbiose op gasheergroei en voedings doeltreffenheid evalueer het. Die ondersoek het bewys dat AM, as ‘n C-sink, kompeteer met die gasheer vir beskikbare C. Vorige werk oor die AM sink-effek het hoofsaaklik gefokus op die afwaartse beweging van fotosintetiese C om die AM-swam ondergronds te ondersteun. Die werk neem egter nie in ag wat die effek van gestoorde C op die C-ekonomie van die plant en simbiose sou wees nie. Die rol van gestoorde C is selfs nog meer belangrik wanneer met bladwisselende plante gewerk word, omdat sulke plante op gestoorde-C vir nuwe groei aan die begin van die groeiseisoen staatmaak. Dit is op rekord dat gestoorde C in bladwisselende plante by aanvang van die groeiseisoen gemobiliseer word en dat die C-reserwes teen die einde van die seisoen wanneer die plante rustyd nader, weer hervul word. Die aanvanklike kostes van AM kolonisering is deur die bogronds C-reserwes, ten koste van nuwe groei van die gasheerplante, gedra. Hierdie kostes herstel sodra die plato-fase bereik is, waar die uitgeputte reserwes begin hervul het. As die aktiewe simbiose eers gevestig is, sal dit as ‘n onderg P-voeding van AM wortels verkry wordrondse C-sink vir gasheer optree.Hierdie C verbruik word egter as doeltreffend beskou aangesien verbeterde. Dit is bekend dat ‘n groter deel van die ondergrondse C geallokeer word aan AM-wortels, deur middel van AM respirasie en P-opname. Die C-kostes van die AM-fungus tydens die fase van vinnige ontwikkeling, kan ‘n negatiewe effek op wortel- en lootontwikkeling hê. Hierdie negatiewe uitwerking kan vir ‘n tydperk voortdeur, selfs gedurende die plato-fase van fungi-ontwikkeling. Sodra die AM-simbiose volledig gevestig is, word gasheergroei en ontwikkeling tot ‘n groter mate verbeter as in plante sonder AM-fungi. Hierdie ondersoek het bewys dat AM groei direk met gasheerontwikkeling kompeteer, maar dat die simbiose ‘n voordelige vennootskap vorm sodra dit volledig gevestig is.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16393
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