The profile of a surgical ICU in a public sector tertiary hospital in South Africa

Hanekom, Susan (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2004-12)

Thesis (MScFisio)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the baseline data of a surgical ICU in South Africa before the implementation of an evidence-based physiotherapy practice protocol. Design: Prospective cohort observational study Setting: Ten-bed closed surgical unit in a university affiliated tertiary hospital. Patients: All adult ICU admissions from 16 June - 30 September 2003. Measurements: The patient’s clinical data including demographic information, admission diagnosis, surgery classification and co-morbidities were recorded on admission to the unit. APACHE II score was calculated. The physiotherapy techniques, positions and functional activities used, the frequency and duration of physiotherapy treatment sessions, the provision of after-hours service and the diagnosis of pulmonary complications were also recorded daily. The time of mechanical ventilation was calculated and the number of re-intubations documented. The ICU length of stay or mortality was recorded. Results: 160 patients were admitted. Patients were 49 +/- 19.95 years of age. The mean APACHE II score was 12.3 +/ 7.19 and a 12.3% mortality was observed. Thirty seven percent of patients were admitted to the unit following elective surgery. Patients stayed in the unit for 5.94 +/- 6.55 days. Hypertension was the most frequent co-morbidity found in this cohort (42%), and 21% of patients tested, tested positive for HIV. Co-morbidities had no significant association with ICU LOS or mortality. Nine hundred and twenty seven physiotherapy records were obtained. Students were responsible for 39% (n=366) of treatment sessions, the unit therapist for 34% (n=311) and the on-call therapists for 27% (n=250). Despite routine daily physiotherapy for all patients in the unit, 39% (n=62) developed excessive secretions, 30% (n=48) of patients developed pneumonia and 27% (n=43) of patients were diagnosed with basal atelectasis. Nineteen patients (12%) died in the ICU. Patients spent a mean of 5.94 (SD 6.55) days in the unit. One hundred patients (63%) were ventilated. Almost a third of ventilated patients (31%) were intubated more than once. The patients spent a mean time of 3.8 days (SD 6.30) on the ventilator every time they were re-intubated. The development of pulmonary complications significantly increased the time on the ventilator and the LOS. Conclusions: This baseline study of a surgical ICU presents a picture of a unit providing care comparable to first world environments. The picture of the physiotherapy service provided in this unit is of a “traditional” service based neither on the available evidence regarding the prevention or management of pulmonary complications, nor on the incorporation of early rehabilitation into the management of mechanically ventilated adult patients in ICU.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Doel: Om die basis lyn van ‘n chirurgiese intensiewe sorg eenheid in Suid Afrika te beskryf voor die implementering van ‘n bewysgesteunde fisioterapie protokol in die eenheid. Studie struktuur: Prospektiewe kohort observerende studie. Eenheid: Tien bed geslote eenheid in ‘n tertiêre opleidingshospitaal. Pasiënte: Alle volwasse pasiënte opgeneem in die eenheid tussen 16 Junie en 30 September 2003. Meetings: Demografiese data, diagnose met opname, chirurgie klassifikasie en ko-morbiditeite is aangeteken by opname. APACHE II is bereken. Die fisioterapie tegnieke, pasiënt posisies en funksionele aktiwiteite gebruik in behandelingssessies, die frekwensie en duur van behandelingssessies, die verskaffing van na-ure diens aan die eenheid asook die komplikasies gediagnoseer is daagliks aangeteken. Die tyd wat pasiënte geventileer is asook die aantal kere geher-intubeer is bereken. Die tydsduur van eenheid verblyf asook mortaliteit is aangeteken. Results: 160 pasiënte is opgeneem, met ‘n gemiddelde ouderdom van 49 +/- 19.95. Die gemiddelde APACHE II telling was 12.3 +/ 7.19 en die mortaliteit was 12.3%. Sewe en dertig persent van pasiënte is opgeneem na elektiewe chirurgie. Pasiënte bly in die eenheid gemiddeld vir 5.94 +/- 6.55 dae. Hipertensie was die mees algemene ko-morbiditeit (42%), en 21% van die pasiënte wat getoets is, het positief getoets vir HIV. Ko-morbiditeite het geen beduidende verband getoon met die tyd in die eenheid of mortaliteit nie. 927 Fisioterapie rekords is aangeteken. Studente was verantwoordelik vir 39% (n=366) van die behandelingssessies, die eenheid terapeut vir 34% (n=311) en die op-roep fisioterapeute vir 27% (n=250). Ten spyte van daaglikse roetine fisioterapie behandeling van alle pasiënte in die eenheid het 39% (n=62) oormatige sekresies ontwikkel, 30% (n=48) is met pneumonie gediagnoseer en 27% (n=43) met basale atelektase. Negentien pasiënte (12%) is dood in die eenheid. Die tydsduur van eenheid verblyf was 5.94 (SD 6.55) dae. Een honderd pasiënte (63%) is geventileer. Byna een derde (31%) van pasiënte is geher-intubeer. Met elke her-intubasie het die pasiënte gemiddeld 3.8 (SD 6.30) dae langer op die ventilator gebly. Pulmonale komplikasies het beide die tydsduur in die eenheid as op die ventilator betekenisvol verleng. Gevolgtrekkings: Hierdie basislyn studie beskryf ‘n eenheid waar pasiënte mediese sorg ontvang soortgelyk aan eerste wêreld lande. Die fisioterapeutiese diens wat gelewer word is egter nie gebasseer op die nuutste bewyse in die literatuur nie. Nog, in die voorkoming of in die behandeling van pulmonale komplikasies, nog in die vroëere inkorporasie van rehabilitasie in die hantering van volwasse pasiënte in ‘n intensiewe sorg eenheid.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/16335
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