Influence of oxygen addition on the phenolic composition of red wine

Geldenhuys, Lorraine (2009-12)

Thesis (MscAgric (Viticulture and Oenology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Tannins and colour components in red wine are important quality parameters. These factors can be manipulated in the vineyard by grape growing techniques or in the cellar by different winemaking practices. Grape seeds make a significant contribution to tannin concentration in wine when compared to those from the skins and pulp. Tannins contribute to the ageing potential, organoleptic properties and stabilisation of red wine colour. The colour of a red wine is also influenced by malolactic fermentation, the biological process that transforms malic acid into lactic acid which normally leads to an increase in pH. The subsequent change in pH alters the anthocyanin equilibrium, the primary colour components in red wine. Oxygen contributes to the polymerisation of anthocyanins over time to form more stable pigments that are less sensitive to pH fluctuations and sulphur dioxide bleaching. Limited research has been done on the use of oxygen after alcoholic fermentation and the impact it has on the phenolic composition of red wines. Similarly, only a few studies have examined the impact of either the addition or removal of seeds to the phenolic composition of a red wine in combination with oxygen addition. Additionally, little published data seems to exist on the effect of different pHs on red wine’s phenolic and colour development after oxygen addition. In our results we have shown that it is possible to stabilise wine colour by adding supplementary seeds before alcoholic fermentation. This led to an increase in colour intensity in certain cases. Some red wines produced without seeds had significantly lower colour intensities. This clearly suggests that catechins and proanthocyanidins are extracted from seeds and contribute to wine colour as they combine with other pigments to stabilise wine colour. Spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses have shown that the total phenolic content increased with seed concentration. However, we have observed that a wine may possibly become saturated with phenols when supplementary seeds are added. Anthocyanin concentrations often decreased when oxygen was added, while polymeric phenols and polymeric pigments sometimes increased. When applying different oxygen dosages to a red wine on commercial scale with microoxygenation, it was found that monomeric anthocyanins decreased as more oxygen was added and this decrease in anthocyanins led to the formation of stable polymeric pigments. This was reflected in the significant increase in colour intensity for the wines receiving oxygen. Small differences were detected in the total phenol and tannin concentration for the control and oxygenated wines. However, some of these phenolic and colour differences disappeared during subsequent ageing of the wine. When making wines of different initial pHs, we observed that the colour density decreased as the pH increased. The application of oxygen reduced the decrease in colour during MLF, especially at a lower pH. The addition of oxygen did not result in significantly different polymeric pigment concentrations in the various pH treatments, although the results could have been different if the wines were aged. However, pH differences in the range between 3.4 and 4.0 did not significantly influence the phenol composition of the wines under our conditions. This study led to a better understanding on the effect of oxygen additions under different conditions on red wine's phenolic and colour composition.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tanniene en kleur komponente teenwoordig in rooiwyn is belangrike kwaliteit parameters. Hierdie faktore wat wynkwaliteit beïnvloed kan gemanipuleer word in die wingerd deur verskeie verbouingstegnieke toe te pas en in die kelder deur die toepassing van verskillende wynbereidingsmetodes. Die bydrae van sade tot die finale tannienkonsentrasie in rooiwyn is groot in vergelyking met dié van die pulp en doppe. Tanniene dra by tot die verouderingspotensiaal, organoleptiese eienskappe en die stabilisasie van die wynkleur. Die kleur van ‘n rooi wyn word ook beïnvloed deur appelmelksuurgisting (AMG), die biologiese proses wat appelsuur omskakel na melksuur en ‘n gevolglike toename in die pH van die wyn veroorsaak. Hierdie verandering in die pH van die wyn beïnvloed die antosianien ewewig, die primêre kleur komponente teenwoordig in rooiwyn. Suurstof dra by tot die polimerisasie van antosianiene oor tyd om meer stabiele kleur pigmente te vorm met ‘n hoër kleurintensiteit wat minder sensitief is teenoor pH veranderinge en die bleikingseffek van swaweldioksied. Beperkte navorsing is gedoen op die gebruik van suurstof na alkoholiese gisting en die impak daarvan op die fenoliese samestelling van ‘n rooiwyn. Slegs ‘n paar studies het die invloed van die verwydering of byvoeging van sade in kombinasie met suurstoftoediening op ‘n rooiwyn se fenoliese samestelling ondersoek. Dit wil voorkom of beperkte gepubliseerde data beskikbaar is oor die effek wat verskillende pH’s het op rooi wyn se fenoliese en kleurontwikkeling na suurstof byvoeging. Ons resultate het aangedui dat dit wel moontlik is om in sekere gevalle die kleur van ‘n rooiwyn te stabiliseer deur addisionele sade by te voeg voor alkoholiese fermentasie. Hierdie byvoeging het ‘n toename in kleurintensiteit tot gevolg gehad. Sekere wyne wat gemaak is sonder sade het ‘n kenmerkend laer kleur intensiteit gehad. Hierdie bevinding is ‘n duidelike bewys dat katesjiene en prosianidiene geëkstraheer word vanuit die sade en bydra tot wynkleur deurdat hulle met ander pigmente verbind om die kleur sodoende te stabiliseer. Spektrofotometriese en hoë druk vloeistof chromatografie (HDVC) analises het gewys dat die totale fenoliese konsentrasie neem toe met ‘n toename in saad konsentrasie. Daar is egter waargeneem dat ‘n wyn moontlik versadig kan raak met fenole wanneer addisionele sade bygevoeg word. Antosianien konsentrasies het meestal afgeneem wanneer suurstof bygevoeg is, maar polimeriese fenole en polimeriese pigmente het partykeer toegeneem. Met die toediening van verskillende suurstof dosisse tot ‘n rooiwyn op kommersiële skaal het ons bevind dat monomeriese antosianiene afneem wanneer meer suurstof bygevoeg word. Hierdie afname in antosianiene het egter gelei tot die vorming van stabiele polimeriese pigmente. Dié bevinding was gereflekteer in die toename in kleurintensiteit van wyne wat met suurstof behandel is. Klein verskille was waargeneem vir die totale fenol en tannien konsentrasies tussen die kontrole en wyne behandel met suurstof. Sekere van hierdie fenoliese kleur verskille het egter afgeneem tydens die daaropvolgende veroudering van die wyne. Wyne wat gemaak is met verskillende aanvanklike pH’s se kleurintensiteit neem af soos die pH toeneem. Die toediening van suurstof het die kleurverlies tydens AMG verminder, veral by ‘n laer pH. Die toediening van suurstof het nie verskillende polimeriese pigment konsentrasies by verskillende pH’s veroorsaak nie, maar ‘n verskil kon moontlik waargeneem word indien die wyne verouder was. pH verskille tussen 3.4 en 4.0 het egter nie die fenoliese samestelling van die wyne onder ons omstandighede beduidend beïnvloed nie. Hierdie studie het gelei tot meer kennis oor die effek van suurstoftoedienings onder verskillende kondisies op rooiwyn se fenoliese en kleursamestelling.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/1611
This item appears in the following collections: