A candidate and novel gene search to identify the PFHBII-causative gene

Fernandez, Pedro (Pedro Wallace) (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2004-12)

Dissertation (PhD)--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Heart failure due to cardiomyopathy or cardiac conduction disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in both developed and developing countries. Although defined as separate clinical entities, inherited forms of cardiomyopathies and cardiac conduction disorders have been identified that present with overlapping clinical features and/or have common molecular aetiologies. The objective of the present study was to identify the molecular cause of progressive familial heart block type II (PFHBII), an inherited cardiac conduction disorder that segregates in a South African Caucasian Afrikaner family (Brink and Torrington, 1977). The availability of family data tracing the segregation of PFHBII meant that linkage analysis could be employed to identify the chromosomal location of the disease-causative gene. Human Genome Project (HGP) databases have provided additional resources to facilitate the identification of positional candidate genes. Clinical examinations were performed on individuals of the PFHBII-affected family, and, where available, clinical records of subjects examined in a previous study by Brink and Torrington (1977) were re-assessed. Retrospective data suggested redefining the classification of PFHBII. Subsequently, linkage analysis was used to test described dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and cardiac conduction-causative loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15 and 19 for their involvement in the development of PFHBII. Once a locus was mapped, bioinformatics tools were applied to identify and prioritise positional candidate genes for mutation screening. The retrospective and prospective clinical study redefined PFHBII as a cardiac conduction and DCM-associated disorder and simultaneously allowed more family members to be traced.Fortuitously, candidate loci linkage analysis mapped the PFHBII locus to chromosome 1q32, to a region that overlapped a previously described DCM-associated disorder (CMD1D), by the generation of a maximum pairwise lod score of 3.13 at D1S3753 (theta [θ]=0.0) and a maximum multipoint lod score of 3.7 between D1S3753 and D1S414. However, genetic fine mapping and haplotype analysis placed the PFHBII-causative locus distal to the CMD1D locus, within a 3.9 centimorgan (cM) interval on chromosome 1q32.2-q32.3, telomeric of D1S70 and centromeric of D1S505. Bioinformatics analyses prioritised seven candidate genes for mutation analysis, namely, a gene encoding a potassium channel (KCNH1), an extracellular matrix protein (LAMB3), a protein phosphatase (PPP2R5A), an adapter protein that interacts with a cytoskeletal protein (T3JAM), a putative acyltransferase (KIAA0205) and two genes encoding proteins possibly involved in energy homeostasis (RAMP and VWS59). The PFHBII-causative mutation was not identified, although single sequence variations were identified in four of the seven candidate genes that were screened. Although the molecular aetiology was not established, the present study defined the underlying involvement of DCM in the pathogenesis of PFHBII. The new clinical classification of PFHBII has been published (Fernandez et al., 2004) and should lead to tracing more affected individuals in South Africa or elsewhere. The identification of a novel disease-causative locus may point toward the future identification of a new DCM-associated aetiology, which, in turn, might provide insights towards understanding the associated molecular pathophysiologies of heart failure.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hartversaking as gevolg van kardiomiopatie of kardiale geleidingsiekte is ‘n hoof-oorsaak van mortaliteit and morbiditeit in beide ontwikkelde en ontwikkelende lande. Alhoewel gedefinieer as verskillende kliniese entiteite is oorerflike vorms van kardiomiopatie en kardiale geleidingsstoornisse geïdentifiseer met oorvleuelende kliniese eienskappe en/of molukulêre oorsake. Die doelwit van hierdie studie was om die molukulêre oorsaak van progressiewe familiële hartblok tipe II (PFHBII), ‘n oorerflike kardiale geleidingsstoornis, wat in ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse Kaukasiër familie segregeer (Brink en Torrington, 1977), te identifiseer. Die beskikbaarheid van familie data, beteken dat koppelingsanalise gebruik kan word om die chromosomale posisie van die siekte-veroorsakende geen te identifiseer. Menslike Genoom Projek (MGP) databanke het addisionele hulpbronne beskikbaar gestel om die identifikasie van posisionele kandidaat gene te vergemaklik. Kliniese ondersoeke is uitgevoer op PFHBII-geaffekteerde familielede, en waar beskikbaar is kliniese rekords van persone, wat in ‘n vorige studie deur Brink en Torrington (1977) geassesseer was, herontleed. Retrospektiewe data-analise het die kliniese herdefinisie van PFHBII voorgestel. Daarna is koppelingsanalise gebruik om dilateerde kardiomiopatie (DKM), hipertrofiese kardiomiopatie (HKM) en kardiale geleidingssiekte-veroorsakende loki op chromosoom 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 15 en 19 te ondersoek vir hul moontlike bydrae tot die ontwikkeling van PFHBII. Toe die lokus gekarteer was, is bioinformatiese ondersoeke gebruik om posisionele kandidaat gene te identifiseer en prioritiseer vir mutasie analise. Die retrospektiewe en prospektiewe kliniese ondersoek het PFHBII herdefinieer as ‘n geleidingsstoornis en DKM-verbonde siekte, en terselfde tyd het dit gelei tot die opsporingvan nog familielede. Toevallig het kandidaat loki-analise die PFHBII lokus op chromosoom 1q32 gekarteer, na ‘n gebied wat met ‘n voorheen-beskyfde DKM-verbonde stoornis (CMD1D) oorvleuel, met die opwekking van ‘n makisimum paargewyse lod-getal van 3.13 by D1S3753 (theta [θ] = 0.0) en ‘n maksimum multipunt lod-getal van 3.7 tussen D1S3753 en D1S414. Genetiese fynkartering en haplotipe-analise het die PFHBII-veroorsakende lokus afwaards van die CMD1D lokus geplaas, in ‘n 3.9 centimorgan (cM) gebied op chromosoom 1q32.2-q32.3, telomeries van D1S70 en sentromeries van D1S505. Bioinformatiese analise het daarnatoe gelei dat sewe kandidaat gene vir mutasie analise geprioritiseerd is, naamlik, gene wat onderskeidelik ‘n kalium kanaal (KCNH1), ‘n ekstrasellulêre matriksproteïen (LAMB3), ‘n proteïen fosfatase (PPP2R5A), ‘n aansluiter proteïen wat met ‘n sitoskilet proteïen bind (T3JAM), ‘n asieltansferase (KIAA0205) en twee gene moontlik betrokke in energie homeostase (RAMP en VWS59) enkodeer. Die PFHBII-veroorsakende geen is nie geïdentifiseer nie, alhoewel enkele volgorde-wisselings geïdentifiseer is in vier van die sewe geanaliseerde kandidaat gene. Alhowel die molekulêre oorsaak van die siekte nie vasgestel is nie, het die huidige studie die onderliggende betrokkenheid van DKM in die pathogenese van PFHBII gedefinieer. Die nuwe kliniese klassifikasie van PFHBII is gepubiliseer (Fernandez et al., 2004) en sal lei tot die identifisering van nog geaffekteerde persone in Suid Afrika of in ander lande. Die identifikasie van ‘n nuwe siekte-verbonde lokus mag lei tot die toekomstige identifikasie van ‘n nuwe DKM-verbonde genetiese oorsaak wat, opsig self, dalk insig kan gee in die molekulêre patofisiologie van hartversaking.

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