A T-resonator technique for aperture plane admittance parameters of electrically short RF monopoles
Thesis (MScEng (Electrical and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.
This thesis focuses on the coaxial-microstrip T-resonator measurement technique to determine the aperture plane capacitance and radiation resistance of electrically short monopoles above a finite ground plane at Radio Frequencies. The determination of these impedance parameters is of interest as they are needed in the Thévenin equivalent circuit of the monopole to establish the relationship between the monopole, the electromagnetic field within which it is immersed, and its surrounding medium properties. Electromagnetically short monopoles are used in various applications such as in permittivity and biomedical measurement techniques and near-field metrology. The coaxial-microstrip device allows the measurement of transmission coefficient nulls when connected to the network analyser. By measuring the frequency shift in transmission null points and analysing the results, the capacitance of short monopoles of various lengths can be obtained. The radiation resistance of the monopole can also be determined by comparing the depth of transmission coefficient nulls points at various resonant frequencies. Monopoles ranging from flush-mounted to various sizes of protruding centre conductors, both bare and insulated, are investigated in the frequencies ranging from 45 MHz to 3 GHz. The experimental results compare well with FEKO numerical predictions at the ranges where this technique is applicable. The technique is however not applicable near and beyond the resonant frequency of the monopole where it is considered to be electrically long. Measurements to obtain monopole impedance parameters were conducted by connecting the device to the HP 8510C Network Analyser. To enhance accuracy, the Network Analyser was calibrated using a high quality calibration kit with precisely defined standards. The technique used was found to accurately yield capacitances in the range of 0.0211 to 1 pF and radiation resistances in the range of 0.9245 to 12.1 Ohms. These results were obtained for monopoles of length 0.0062 < h/l < 0.24. Results from literature, viz. W.R Scott, R.W.P. King and L.J. Cooper, show radiation resistance in the ranges: 2.5 to 35 Ohms (0.079 < h/l < 0.22), 1.26 to 74.08 Ohms (0.026 < h/l < 0.28) and 5.59 to 74.98 Ohms (0.1 < 0.28) for electrically short monopoles. The results of this work are compared with those in the literature and show variations of less than 6%. A technique capable of accurately measuring capacitance and radiation resistance of the monopole at various lengths of protruding centre conductor has been developed. The capacitance for a flush probe compares very well (agreement is less than 6%) when compared with those obtained by the previous researchers. The technique is capable of yielding accurate results radio frequencies in the challenging low radiation resistance range around 1 Ohm.