Modelling HIV/AIDS in the presence of an HIV testing and screening campaign
Preventing and managing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa will dominate the next decade and beyond. Reduction of new HIV infections by implementing a comprehensive national HIV prevention programme at a sufficient scale to have real impact remains a priority. In this paper, a deterministic HIV/AIDS model that incorporates condom use, screening through HIV counseling and testing (HCT), regular testing and treatment as control strategies is proposed with the objective of quantifying the effectiveness of HCT in preventing new infections and predicting the long-term dynamics of the epidemic. It is found that a backward bifurcation occurs if the rate of screening is below a certain threshold, suggesting that the classical requirement for the basic reproduction number to be below unity though necessary, is not sufficient for disease control in this case. The global stabilities of the equilibria under certain conditions are determined in terms of the model reproduction number R0. Numerical simulations are performed and the model is fitted to data on HIV prevalence in South Africa. The effects of changes in some key epidemiological parameters are investigated. Projections are made to predict the long-term dynamics of the disease. The epidemiological implications of such projections on public health planning and management are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.