Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma in six children

Theron S. ; Andronikou S. ; Du Plessis J. ; Goussard P. ; George R. ; Mapukata A. ; Grobbelaar M. ; Hayes M. ; Wieselthaler N. ; Davidson A. (2007)


Background: Pulmonary involvement in Kaposi sarcoma is rare in children and can be difficult to distinguish from other pathology. Objective: To describe the radiological findings in paediatric pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Materials and methods: Sequential chest radiographs of six children and CT scans of four of these children were evaluated retrospectively. Their ages ranged from 18 months to 10 years; four were male and two were female. All six children were HIV-positive. The observers were two radiologists. Results: Chest radiographs revealed air-space (100%) and reticular (83%) opacification in the mid- and lower lung zones; pleural effusions were present in 83% of the children. All the children showed progressive air-space opacification on follow-up radiography. CT demonstrated bilateral air-space opacification in a perihilar distribution in all the children; reticular opacification was seen in 75%. All the children had mediastinal and axillary lymphadenopathy; 75% had bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: In both adults and children, chest radiography demonstrates perihilar and lower zone involvement. Pleural effusions are more common on radiographs in children. Air-space disease and lymphadenopathy are much more common on CT in children than adults. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.

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