Improved outcome in South African children of mixed ethnicity treated for all
□ A historical cohort study with an analytical component was conducted to determine whether risk-appropriate chemotherapy can improve survival in children of mixed ethnicity with ALL. Eighty-one coloured children treated for ALL in South Africa were divided into 2 groups: group A (n = 39), treated prior to 1992, and group B (n = 42), treated after 1992. A comparison was made of survival, treatment complications, and supportive measures. The two groups were comparable. The mean nadirs of the white cell count (p < .01), platelet count (p = .01), and hemoglobin value (p < .01) were significantly lower in group B. The survival rate of 37% in group A improved to 66% in group B (p = .025). The results show that a risk-adapted regimen increased survival in children of mixed ethnicity in the Western Cape, despite increased hematological toxicity and episodes of febrile neutropenia. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.