Pyridoxal-5-phosphate plasma concentrations in children receiving tuberculosis chemotherapy including isoniazid
Aim: Little is known about pyridoxine nutriture of children treated with isoniazid (INH) regimens. This study documents plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in children, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, receiving INH regimens. Methods: Children from the Western Cape of South Africa hospitalized for tuberculosis (TB) management were studied. Plasma PLP concentrations were determined on enrolment, 1-month after commencing TB treatment, and again after 4-month's treatment. The children received a supplement meeting pyridoxine requirements. Results: Nineteen HIV-infected and 33 HIV-uninfected children received INH (dosage range 4-20 mg/kg) daily. Mean PLP plasma concentrations on enrolment were 8.32 (SD 6.75) ng/mL and 11.28 (SD 3.02) ng/mL in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, respectively (p = 0.11) and after 4-month's treatment 6.75 (SD 2.71) ng/mL and 14.76 (SD 7.96) ng/mL (p < 0.001). On enrolment 9 (50%) HIV-infected and 5 (15%) HIV-uninfected children (p = 0.016) had suboptimal PLP concentrations (<6 ng/mL); after 4-month's treatment 8 (42%) and 2 (6%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Plasma PLP concentrations in children treated for TB were low on enrolment in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children; after 4-month's treatment low values were still common in HIV-infected children. Additional pyridoxine supplementation of malnourished children treated for tuberculosis is advisable, particularly those HIV-infected. © 2010 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica.