Position sensorless and optimal torque control of reluctance and permanent magnet synchronous machines
Thesis (PhD (Electric and Electronic Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.
Keywords: position sensorless control, torque control, synchronous machines The work in this thesis deals with energy e cient torque control and rotor position estimation in the full speed range, for a family of synchronous machines that should be used more often in the near future. This family consists of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM), the reluctance synchronous machine (RSM), the interior-PMSM and the PMassisted- RSM. By designing and controlling these synchronous machines correctly, better performance and higher energy e ciency can be expected compared to the performance and e ciency of an industry standard induction machine. However, applications are limited to variable speed drives (VSD) in a certain power range, e.g. below 100kW. With the growing concern and necessity of a better utilization of energy, it is becoming standard to use electronically controlled power converters between the electricity grid and electrical machines. Therefore, there is a very large scope for the implementation of this synchronous machine technology. For traction applications like electrical vehicles, the optimally controlled synchronous machine technology has a very strong position. Very compact and robust synchronous machines with a very high power density can be designed that may out-perform the induction machine by far. However, one major requirement for most applications is position sensorless control, i.e. rotor position estimation in the whole speed range. To achieve energy e cient torque control, maximum torque per Ampere (MTPA) control should be implemented. It is possible to achieve MTPA control at low speed, but above the rated speed of the machine, eld weakening needs to be performed. The question is how to implement MTPA and e ective eld weakening for any value of speed and DC bus voltage and for any machine within this family of synchronous machines. In this thesis a method is explained to achieve this goal using results from nite element (FE) analysis directly. The scheme may be implemented within a very short period of time. The contribution of this thesis is a general understanding of the problems at hand, with an in-depth view into the mathematical representation of synchronous machines, a generic method of energy e cient torque control and a thorough study of rotor position and speed estimation methods.