Antiretroviral therapy for tuberculosis control in nine African countries

Williams B.G. ; Granich R. ; De Cock K.M. ; Glaziou P. ; Sharma A. ; Dyeb C. (2010)

Conference Paper

HIV has increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) by up to sevenfold in African countries, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the incidence of AIDS-related TB. We use a mathematical model to investigate the short-term and long-term impacts of ART on the incidence of TB, assuming that people are tested for HIV once a year, on average, and start ART at a fixed time after HIV seroconversion or at a fixed CD4+ cell count. We fit the model to trend data on HIV prevalence and TB incidence in nine countries in sub-Saharan Africa. If HIV-positive people start ART within 5 y of seroconversion, the incidence of AIDS-related TB in 2015 will be reduced by 48% (range: 37-55%). Long-term reductions depend sensitively on the delay to starting ART. If treatment is started 5, 2, or 1 y after HIV seroconversion, or as soon as people test positive, the incidence in 2050 will be reduced by 66% (range: 57-80%), 95% (range: 93-96%), 97.7% (range: 96.9-98.2%) and 98.4% (range: 97.8-98.9%), respectively. In the countries considered here, early ART could avert 0.71 ± 0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI)] million of 3.4 million cases of TB between 2010 and 2015 and 5.8 ± 2.9 (95% CI) million of 15 million cases between 2015 and 2050. As more countries provide ART at higher CD4+ cell counts, the impact on TB should be investigated to test the predictions of this model.

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