Larger automata and less work for LTL model checking
Many different automata and algorithms have been investigated in the context of automata-theoretic LTL model checking. This article compares the behaviour of two variations on the widely used Büchi automaton, namely (i) a Büchi automaton where states are labelled with atomic propositions and transitions are unlabelled, and (ii) a form of testing automaton that can only observe changes in state propositions and makes use of special livelock acceptance states. We describe how these variations can be generated from standard Büchi automata, and outline an SCC-based algorithm for verification with testing automata. The variations are compared to standard automata in experiments with both random and human-generated Kripke structures and LTL-X formulas, using SCC-based algorithms as well as a recent, improved version of the classic nested search algorithm. The results show that SCC-based algorithms outperform their nested search counterpart, but that the biggest improvements come from using the variant automata. Much work has been done on the generation of small automata, but small automata do not necessarily lead to small products when combined with the system being verified. We investigate the underlying factors for the superior performance of the new variations. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.