A study of apple fruiting branch development under conditions of insufficient winter chilling

Maguylo, Karen (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12)

Thesis (PhD(Agric) (Horticulture))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Branch architecture is the position and length of lateral shoots along a main axis, and is dependant on competitions (dominance) among meristems and lateral shoots. In areas with inadequate winter chilling, branch architecture is altered, the dynamics of which are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to better understand the dynamics underlying plant architecture. In the first part of the study, the dynamics of apple branch architecture were characterized for two cultivars, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith, in areas with differing degrees of inadequate winter chilling (a warm area and a cool area). In an additional study, progeny of a mapped ‘Telamon’ (columnar habit) and ‘Braeburn’ (normal habit) population were used to quantify branch architecture in an effort to develop quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for branching habit. Although branch architecture could be quantified, it was difficult to relate these to known qualitative branching habits, as the columnar gene is dominant and limited the number of progeny that were not columnar. With the exception of organogenesis in the season preceding growth, acrotonic tendencies (number of growing laterals, lateral length, fruit set) were not related to temporal (primigenic) dominance of the distally located buds or flowers within an axis. In the warm area, both relative time of budburst and flowering among buds within an axis did depict a loss of acrotony (positional dominance of the distally located buds and shoots within an axis). The first buds to burst and flower in the warm area had the greatest ability to grow out and set fruit, respectively, regardless of position within the shoot, implicating a role for primigenic dominance when chill unit accumulation was inadequate. Overall, temporal (primigenic) dominance in the warm area, and positional dominance (acrotony) in the cool area dictated lateral outgrowth and development.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Takargitektuur verwys na die posisie en lengte van laterale lote soos dit oor die hoofas versprei voorkom. Dit is afhanklik van kompetisie (dominansie) tussen meristeme en laterale lote. In areas met onvoldoende winterkoue word takargitektuur verander, maar die dinamika van hierdie veranderinge word nog nie goed verstaan nie. Die doel van hierdie navorsing was om die onderliggende dinamika wat plantargitektuur beïnvloed beter te verstaan. In die eerste deel van die studie is die dinamika van appeltakargitektuur van twee cultivars Golden Delicious en Granny Smith, in twee areas met verskillende mate van onvoldoende winterkoue bestudeer (’n warm en ’n koel area). In ’n verdere studie is die nageslag van ‘n ‘Telemon’ (kolomgroeiwyse) en ‘Braeburn’ (normale groeiwyse) kruising gebruik om takargitektuur te kwantifiseer. Dit is gedoen in ’n poging om kwantitatiewe eienskapslokusse vir vertakking te ontwikkel. Alhoewel takargitektuur kwantifiseer kon word, was dit moeilik om dit in verhouding te bring met kwalitatiewe vertakkingspatrone daar die kolomgroeiwyse-geen dominant is en die aantal indiwidue in die nageslag wat nie ’n kolomgroeiwyse gehad het nie beperk was. Met die uitsondering van organogenese in die seisoen wat groei voorafgaan, is akrotoniese neigings (aantal laterale lote, laterale lootlengte, vrugset) nie beïnvloed deur tydelike (primigeniese) dominansie van distale knoppe of blomme binne ’n as nie. In die warm area het beide relatief tot knopbreek en blomtyd binne ’n assestelsel die verlies aan akrotonie beskryf (posisionele dominansie van distale knoppe en lote in assestelsel). Die eerste knoppe wat bot en blom in die warm area het die beste vermoë om te groei en vrugte te set, onafhanklik van hul posisie. Dit impliseer die rol van primigeniese dominansie wanneer ’n gebrek aan winterkoue ervaar word. Algemeen gesien was dit tydelike (primigeniese) dominansie in warm areas en posisionele dominansie (akrotonie) in die koeler area wat lateraal bot en ontwikkeling bepaal het.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/1222
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