Anti-oxidant properties of H2-receptor antagonists. Effects on myeloperoxidase-catalysed reactions and hydroxyl radical generation in a ferrous-hydrogen peroxide system
Ulcerogenesis of the gastroduodenal mucosa is caused by the digestive action of gastric juice and initially involves an inflammatory reaction with infiltration of phagocytes. The anti-inflammatory activity of many drugs have been attributed to the inhibition of the leukocyte enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO). In this study, the H2-antagonists in clinical use were found to be potent inhibitors of MPO-catalysed reactions (IC50 < 3 μM) under conditions resembling those in experiments with intact neutrophils. Since peak plasma concentrations of cimetidine, ranitidine and nizatidine are well within the micromolar range, after oral therapeutic dosing, our results may be of clinical relevance. The inhibitory actions of cimetidine and nizatidine were largely due to scavenging of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a powerful chlorinating oxidant produced in the MPO-H2O2-Cl- system. In contrast to famotidine, ranitidine was also a potent scavenger of HOCl, while both drugs inhibited MPO reversibly by converting it to compound II, which is inactive in the oxidation of Cl-. The HOCl scavenging potencies of ranitidine and nizatidine were about three times higher than that of the anti-rheumatic drug, penicillamine, which had a potency similar to that of cimetidine. The rapid HOCl scavenging ability of penicillamine is thought to contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects. Using riboflavin as a probe, the H2-antagonists were found to be inhibitors of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated in a Fe2+-H2O2 reaction mixture. Spectral analyses of the interaction of iron ions with the drugs and studies with chelators, suggest that the drugs were efficient chelators of Fe2+, in addition to their ·OH scavenging abilities. Since the gastrointestinal tract can contain potentially reactive iron, the simultaneous presence of H2-antagonists may help to suppress iron-driven steps in tissue damage.