Role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases in ischemic preconditioning
Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in the mechanism of protection induced by ischemic preconditioning (PC). For example, stimulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors results in stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) which has been suggested to act as common denominator in eliciting protection. PC also significantly attenuated cAMP accumulation during sustained ischemia, suggesting involvement of an anti-adrenergic mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the β-adrenergic signal transduction pathway (as evidenced by changes in tissue cAMP and cAMP- and cGMP-phosphodiesterase) during the PC protocol as well as during sustained ischemia. Isolated perfused rat hearts were preconditioned by 3 x 5 min global ischemia (PC1,2,3) interspersed by 5 min reperfusion, followed by 25 min global ischemia. Tissue cAMP- and cGMP-PDE activity as well as cAMP and cGMP levels were determined at different time intervals during the PC protocol and sustained ischemia. Tissue cAMP increased with each PC ischemic event and normalized upon reperfusion, while PDE activity showed the opposite, viz a reduction during ischemia and an increase during reperfusion. Except for PC1, tissue cGMP showed similar fluctuations. Throughout 25 min sustained ischemia, cAMP- and cGMP-PDE activities were higher in PC than in nonpreconditioned hearts, associated with a significantly lesser accumulation in cAMP and higher cGMP levels in the former. Fluctuations in cyclic nucleotides during preconditioning were associated with concomitant changes in PDE acitivity, while the attenuated β-adrenergic reponse of preconditioned hearts during sustained ischemia may partially be due to increased PDE activity.