The formation of hydrous zirconium (IV) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. I. Poly(itaconic acid)_and poly(acrylic-co-itaconic acid)
Poly(acrylic acid) (I), poly(itaconic acid) (II) and poly(acrylic acid-coitaconic acid) (III) were synthesized. These polymers were used to dynamically form composite membranes with hydrous zirconium (IV) oxide. The membranes were formed on Millipore HA filters (rated 0.45 ¬m). The formation characteristics of zirconium (I), zirconium (II) and zirconium (III) membranes were observed and briefly reported on. The three different membranes were evaluated and compared after 24 h of use at pH 7, and at pH 8 and pH 9 for 1 h at each pH. Comparison and evaluation was done in terms of the membranes' salt (NaNO3) rejection, flux and figures of merit. The zirconium (III) membranes show an interesting improvement in performance at pH values above neutral. © 1988.