Terrorism and international counter-terrorism regime in Africa: A comparative analysis of Kenya and Tanzania

Tyitende, Rui Antonio (2021-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2021.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the degree and scope of transnational security cooperation and collaboration, more specifically, counter-terrorism cooperation. Within 24 hours of this historic occurrence, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1368,which resulted in far-reaching consequences for its 194 member states. The adoption of Resolution 1373 followed three weeks later, and this compelled all member states to domesticate specific counter-terrorism legislation that criminalised terrorist activities and the financing thereof. This thesis argues that from a regime-theory perspective, the United States acts as the global enforcer of the international counter-terrorism regime by inducing cooperation and collaboration with other weaker states in the international system to ensure compliance. The study adopted four political factors that explain the varying degrees of compliance with the counter-terrorism regime demonstrated by Kenya and Tanzania. The study argues that Kenya is a more willing partner in the global fight against terrorism because of its perceived perception of the threat it faces. Unlike Kenya,Tanzania has been a reluctant participant and has suffered the hegemonic wrath of the United States when its nationals were barred from travelling to the United States on 31 January 2020 due to the country not sharing terrorism-related information with the United States. Although Tanzania passed its Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 with minimum obstruction, this has not been sufficient for the country to be portrayed as a supportive state on the ‘Global War on Terrorism’ since it is yet to designate the Islamic State and Al-Shabaab as terrorist organisations. Furthermore, the study provided a comprehensive overview of the terrorism landscapes of Kenya and Tanzania and concluded that the former faces a significant threat from terrorism because of its geographical proximity to the threat, its porous borders and its decision to be an active participant in the African Union Mission in Somalia to dismantle and obliterate Al-Shabaab.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die 9/11 terroriste aanvalle op die Verenigde State van Amerika (VSA) het die wese en draagwydte van internasionale samewerking op sekuriteitsgebied in die algemeen, en teen-terroristiese optrede in die besonder, grondig verander. In die bestek van 24 uur na dié historiese gebeurtenis, het die Veiligheidsraad van die Verenigde Nasies, eenparig Resolusie 1358 aangeneem, met wydreikende gevolge vir die 194 lidstate. Voorts het Resolusie 1373, wat ‘n skamele drie weke daarna aangeneem is dit verpligtend gemaak vir alle lidstate om spesifieke teen-terrorisme wetgewing in hulle eie domein te promulgeer wat terrorisitiese aktiwiteite, sowel as die finansiering daarvan, gekriminaliseer het. Hierdie tesis postuleer, dat gesien vanuit ‘n regime teoretiese perspektief, die Verenigde State van Amerika (VSA), optree as a globale afdwinger van ‘n teen-terrorisme regime deur gedwonge samewerking met ander swakker en kleiner state in die internasionale sisteem, om nakoming te verseker. Die studie maak gebruik van vier politieke veranderlikes word om die wisselende mate van nakoming van die teen-terrorisme regime deur Kenia en Tanzanië te ontleed. Die studie voer aan dat Kenia ‘n meer inskiklike vennoot is as gevolg van dié land se bedreigings persepsie. In teenstelling met Kenia is Tanzanië ‘n minder gewillige vennoot van die Verenigde State van Amerika. Dié land se burgers is gevolglik op 31 Januarie 2020 deur die VSA geweier om die land binne te kom op grond daarvan dat Tanzanië onwillig is om terrorisme-verwante inligting met die VSA uit te ruil. Nieteenstaande Tanzanië se aanname van dié land se Prevention of Terrorism Act van 2002 (Wet op die Voorkoming van Terrorisme), was dit nie voldoende om Tanzanië as voldoende ondersteunend van die VSA se ‘Global War on Terror’ (Globale Oorlog teen Terrorisme) te beskou nie, veral omdat dié land nog nie die Islamitiese Staat (ISIS) en Al-Shabaab as terroriste organisasies verklaar het nie. Verder bied die studie ‘n omvangryke en diepgaande oorsig van die terrorisme landskappe in Kenia en Tanzanië. Teen die agtergrond van die oorsig, kom die studie tot die gevolgtrekking dat Kenia ‘n veel meer beduidende terroristiese bedreiging as Tanzanië ervaar as gevolg van verskeie faktore, waaronder: dié land se deelname aan die African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) wat ten doel het om Al-Shabaab te vernietig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/109949
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