The impact of globalisation on food availability and access in developing countries : a case of Malawi

Singini, Dorica (2020-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Globalisation has affected food systems in the world and the world’s poor in so many ways. The increased process of globalisation has had a major impact on food security around the world and with it a greater impact and increased importance in the lives of producers and food consumers. There are traces that the impacts of globalisation have not spared Malawi’s food and agriculture sector. Over the years, communication technology, the use of biotechnology and access to information has improved. Additionally, food systems have changed due to international trade and this has led to the increased presence of supermarkets. With all these improvements, it is not well known if all these factors have had any success in reducing food insecurity and its effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of globalisation on food availability and access in Malawi, where food availability and access are indicators of food security. The study has two study periods, the first period is from 1970 to 2016 and the second study period is from 1987 to 2013. The first study period covers the data for the first model which investigates the impact of globalisation on food availability which was proxied by maize production, while the second period constitutes data for the second model which investigates the impact of globalisation on food supply. Other factors identified that could affect food availability and access that were included in the model are: food prices, weather changes, the area of cultivated land, population growth, per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the farm input subsidy programme and other input subsidy programmes such as starter pack and supplementary input programmes. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributive Lag model for its analysis, which is a time series model that includes lagged values of the variables of interest and traces relationships among them over time. The findings from the models indicate a positive impact of globalisation on food availability and access, particularly on maize production and food supply which have been selected as measures of food availability and access in Malawi. Specifically, the results for the short run and long run model show that globalisation has a positive impact on maize production. Similarly, the findings of the impact of globalisation on food supply also indicate a positive impact for both the short run and long run model. The implication for the results is that globalisation is associated with diffusion of agricultural and information technology. This increases access to improved agricultural technologies. From the findings, it can be concluded that; even though it is established that globalisation has a positive impact on food availability and access in Malawi, the magnitude of the effect is minimal as indicated by the estimated coefficients of maize production and food supply. Therefore, deliberate interventions have to be made to ensure that the benefits of globalisation are enhanced.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Globalisering het voedselsisteme in die wêreld en die wêreld se armes op soveel maniere beïnvloed. Die toenemende proses van globalisering het 'n groot impak op voedselsekerheid oor die hele wêreld gehad, en daarmee saam 'n groter impak en 'n groter belang in die lewens van produsente en voedselverbruikers. Daar is aanduidings dat die gevolge van globalisering nie die voedsel- en landbousektor in Malawi gespaar het nie. Oor die jare het kommunikasietegnologie, die gebruik van biotegnologie en toegang tot inligting verbeter. Boonop het voedselsisteme verander weens die internasionale handel, en dit het gelei tot ‘n toename in die teenwoordigheid van supermarkte. Met al hierdie verbeterings is dit nie goed bekend of al hierdie faktore suksesvol was met die vermindering van voedselonsekerheid en die gevolge daarvan nie. Hierdie studie het ten doel gehad om die gevolge van globalisering op beskikbaarheid en toegang tot voedsel in Malawi te ondersoek, waar beskikbaarheid en toegang tot voedsel aanwysers van voedselsekerheid is. Die studie het twee studietydperke, die eerste periode is van 1970 tot 2016 en die tweede studietydperk is van 1987 tot 2013. Die eerste studieperiode dek die data vir die eerste model wat die impak van globalisering op die beskikbaarheid van voedsel ondersoek, wat verteenwoordig word deur mielieprodukise, terwyl die tweede periode geld vir die tweede model wat die impak van globalisering op voedselvoorraad ondersoek. Ander faktore wat voedselsekerheid kan beïnvloed wat by die model ingesluit is, sluit in: voedselpryse, weersveranderinge, die oppervlak bewerkte grond, bevolkingsgroei, die bruto binnelandse produk per capita, die inset-subsidie-program vir plase en ander insetsubsidieprogramme, soos die beginpakket en aanvullende insetprogramme. Die studie gebruik 'n Autoregressive Distributiewe Sloerings-model vir die analise. Dit is 'n tydreeksmodel wat sloerings insluit van die relevante veranderlikes en verbande tussen hulle oor tyd naspeur. Die bevindinge van die modelle dui op 'n positiewe impak van globalisering op voedselsekerheid, veral op mielieproduksie en voedselaanbod, wat gekies is as maatstawwe vir voedseltoegang en -beskikbaarheid in Malawi. Spesifiek, die resultate vir die korttermyn- en langtermynmodel toon dat globalisering 'n positiewe invloed op mielieproduksie het. Net so dui die bevindinge van die impak van globalisering op voedselvoorraad ook op 'n positiewe impak oor sowel die korttermyn- as langtermyn. Die implikasie hiervan is dat globalisering verband hou met verspreiding van landbou- en inligtingstegnologie. Dit verhoog toegang tot verbeterde landboutegnologieë. Uit die bevindinge kan afgelei word dat alhoewel globalisering 'n positiewe impak het op die beskikbaarheid en toegang van voedsel in Malawi, die omvang van die effek minimaal is, soos aangedui deur die beraamde koëffisiënte van mielieproduksie en voedselvoorraad. Daarom moet daar met doelbewuste ingryping verseker word dat die voordele van globalisering verhoog word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108232
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