Exploring the antecedents of extra-role behaviour : becoming an empowered consultant

Nutt, Uanne ; De Vos, Uanne (2020-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : South African organisations are continuously challenged by fast-paced changes in their operating environments. Consulting firms are expected to be among the fastest adaptors, with their superior diagnostic and problem-solving skills. With the survival of organisations being threatened, consulting firms are presented with opportunities to provide innovative and forward-thinking solutions to their organisational clients. For them to prosper from these opportunities, they also must adapt to changing conditions and dynamically seek new competitive advantages in the value proposition that they offer to clients. In order to consistently provide tailor-made solutions to clients’ context-specific needs, consultants must deviate from prescribed roles and standard approaches. These necessary deviations, which enable consultants to add significant value to clients through a higher quality service, are referred to as extra-role behaviours. To unlock and elicit the potential value added by extra-role behaviours, organisations should appoint and develop leaders who enable consultants to engage in these behaviours. This study aims to explore the antecedents of extra-role behaviour, with a specific focus on the influence of empowering leadership and an empowered psychological state. The extra-role behaviours that are of interest in this study are organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and proactive behaviour (PB). The present study aimed to answer the following research-initiating question – what causes variance in the extra-role behaviours (i.e. OCB and PB) of South African consultants? Subsequently, an in-depth analysis was conducted of the existing literature on OCB, PB, psychological empowerment, and empowering leadership. Hypotheses were formulated from the extensive literature review, substantiating the relationships between the constructs of interest. An ex post facto correlational research design was used. A non-probability, snowball convenience sampling technique was utilised to recruit potential research participants (i.e. South African consultants who report to a manager). Quantitative data was collected by means of an online survey, which comprised the following measurements: a 24-item OCB scale, a 10-item taking charge PB questionnaire, a 12-item psychological empowerment scale, and a 38-item empowering leadership questionnaire (ELQ). The final sample comprised 174 responses. The empirical data was analysed by means of various statistical analyses. A reliability analysis was performed to determine whether the measurements that were used to collect the empirical data were valid and reliable. Based on the results of the PB scale, additional analyses were conducted, and it was found that PB has a two-factor structure. The revised PB structure was utilised for the subsequent analyses. The reliability analysis results indicated that each measurement model reproduced the empirical data reasonably well. Further analyses were performed to determine the goodness of fit between the hypothesised structural model and the empirical data. Path coefficients were found to be statistically significant (p < .001) for the hypothesised positive influence of psychological empowerment on OCB, the hypothesised positive influence of psychological empowerment on PB, as well as the hypothesised positive influence of empowering leadership on psychological empowerment. Furthermore, the structural model explained a significant portion of variance in the extra-role behaviours of consultants. An additional mediation analysis confirmed that psychological empowerment fully mediates the relationship between empowering leadership and OCB, and also fully mediates the relationship between empowering leadership and PB (p = .00). The present study has made a significant contribution to the available knowledge on extra-role behaviours in consultants, and thus offers important insight into South African industrial psychology.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies word voortdurend uitgedaag deur die vinnige veranderings in hulle bedryfsomgewings. Konsultasie firmas sal na verwagting een van die vinnigste aanpassers wees, met hul uitstekende diagnostiese en probleemoplossingsvaardighede. Met dié dat die oorlewing van organisasies bedreig word, word konsultasie firmas die geleentheid gebied om innoverende en vooruitdenkende oplossings aan hul organisatoriese kliënte te bied. Om voordeel te kan trek uit hierdie geleenthede, moet konsultasie firmas ook aanpas by veranderende omstandighede en op 'n dinamiese manier nuwe mededingende voordele soek in die waardeproposisie wat hulle aan kliënte bied. Konsultante moet afwyk van voorgeskrewe rolle en standaardbenaderings om konsekwent pasgemaakte oplossings aan kliënte se konteksspesifieke behoeftes te bied. Hierdie noodsaaklike afwykings, wat konsultante in staat stel om deur middel van 'n diens van hoër gehalte aansienlike waarde aan kliënte te voeg, word na verwys as buite-rol gedrag. Om die potensiële waardetoevoeging van buite-rol gedrag te ontsluit en te ontlok, moet organisasies leiers aanstel en ontwikkel wat konsultante in staat stel om aan hierdie gedrag deel te neem. Hierdie studie het ten doel om die antesedente van buite-rol gedrag te ondersoek, met spesifieke fokus op die invloed van bemagtigende leierskap en 'n bemagtigde sielkundige toestand. Die buite-rol gedrag wat in hierdie studie van belang is, is organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) en proactive behaviour (PB). Die huidige studie het ten doel gehad om die volgende navorsingsvraag te beantwoord - wat veroorsaak variansie in die buite-rol gedrag (d.w.s., OCB en PB) van Suid-Afrikaanse konsultante? 'n Diepgaande analise is gedoen van die bestaande literatuur oor OCB, PB, sielkundige bemagtiging en bemagtigende leierskap. Op grond van hierdie oorsig van die bestaande literatuur is hipoteses geformuleer om die verwantskappe tussen die konstrukte te staaf. 'n Ex post facto korrelasie-navorsingsontwerp was gebruik. 'n Nie-waarskynlikheid-steekproefnemingstegniek is gebruik om potensiële deelnemers (d.w.s., Suid-Afrikaanse konsultante wat aan 'n bestuurder rapporteer) te werf. Kwantitatiewe data is deur middel van 'n webgebaseerde opname ingesamel, wat uit die volgende metings bestaan het: ’n 24-item OCB-skaal, ’n 10-item PB-vraelys, ’n 12-item sielkundige bemagtigingskaal, en ’n 38-item empowering leadership questionnaire (ELQ). Die finale steekproef het uit 174 respondente bestaan. Die empiriese data is aan ’n reeks statistiese analises onderwerp. 'n Betroubaarheidsanalise is uitgevoer om te bepaal of die metings wat gebruik is om die empiriese data te versamel, geldig en betroubaar was. Op grond van die resultate van die PB-skaal is aanvullende ontledings uitgevoer, en daar is gevind dat die PB-skaal eerder 'n tweefaktorstruktuur het. Die hersiene tweefaktor-PB-struktuur is gebruik vir die daaropvolgende ontledings. Die resultate van die betroubaarheidsanalise het aangedui dat elke meetmodel het die empiriese data bevredigend weerspieël. Dus is verdere ontledings uitgevoer om die geskiktheid tussen die hipotese strukturele model en die empiriese data te bepaal. Al die bane is statisties beduidend en betekenisvol bevind (p < .001) vir die hipotese positiewe invloed van sielkundige bemagtiging op OCB, die hipotese positiewe invloed van sielkundige bemagtiging op PB, sowel as die hipotese positiewe invloed van bemagtigende leierskap op silekundige bemagtiging. Verder het die strukturele model 'n beduidende gedeelte van variansie in die buite-rol gedrag van konsultante verklaar. 'n Bykomende bemiddelingsanalise het bevestig dat sielkundige bemagtiging die verhouding tussen bemagtigende leierskap en OCB asook die verhouding tussen bemagtigende leierskap en PB ten volle bemiddel (p = .00). Die studie het ’n betekenisvolle bydrae gemaak tot die bestaande kennis van buite-rol gedrag in konsultante, en bied dus aan Suid-Afrikaanse bedryfsielkundiges belangrike insigte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108188
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