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Promoting agriculture amongst the black youth of South Africa : the role the sector has to play in creating employment, alleviating poverty, and achieving equitable economic growth

dc.contributor.advisorVink, N.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorMama, Mlungisi Lungileen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of Agricultural Economics.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2020-02-20T09:30:22Z
dc.date.accessioned2020-04-28T12:20:03Z
dc.date.available2020-02-20T09:30:22Z
dc.date.available2020-04-28T12:20:03Z
dc.date.issued2020-03
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/108115
dc.descriptionThesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2020.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY : The persistence of rural and urban poverty, the renewed interest in agriculture and a sense of urgency regarding employment for young people have joined in the minds of policy makers and development professionals, to the point where the agricultural sector has become one of the key sectors to look for answers to the crisis of youth unemployment. Unemployment and poverty are major problems faced by developing countries such as South Africa. The problem becomes more severe when it affects the youth more than the elderly, as the youth are the future of any country. The black youth of South Africa are highly impoverished and are unemployed. High unemployment, especially amongst the youth, and high levels of poverty in the midst of the poor economic growth that South Africa has been experiencing, indicates that there has been no inclusive growth in South Africa and the society remains highly unequal. The agricultural sector is a sector that the black youth (and youth at large) do not consider capable of helping them out of their poverty and unemployment woes. The truth of the matter is that the agricultural sector is more than capable of creating decent employment (and selfemployment) and alleviating poverty for the black youth of South Africa. In pursuing economic growth and with most well-paying jobs being in the urban areas (resulting in urbanisation), the agricultural sector and rural economies should not be neglected. Instead, South Africa should ensure that the agricultural sector and rural economies are developed concurrently so that the queue of the urban unemployed is reduced and people find decent employment within the agricultural sector in the rural economies. Through sound infrastructure, the agricultural sector does not just remain in the rural economy and primary sector, it also forms part of the urban economy and secondary sector (agro-processing). This is an imperative link for any economy as the narrative changes: from rural dwellers flooding the urban areas in order to obtain lowpaying jobs and staying in urban slums (shacks) on the outskirts of the urban area, to rural dwellers merely being in the urban area because of their movement within the agricultural value chain (from primary production to agro-processing). This would ensure that poverty within the urban areas, which is often overlooked when certain statistics surveys are being conducted, is also dealt with. There are many unemployed and impoverished people living in urban areas because the chances of getting decent employment is higher in urban areas than rural areas. What is of great concern is that from an agriculture perspective, the rural areas with arable land are left desolate because there is no one there to work the land This paper’s focus is twofold; firstly, it focuses on the importance of youth participation in the agricultural sector, given the sector’s importance in equitable economic growth, and then it looks at policies and processes that are needed to address this problem. A questionnaire, which was focused on ascertaining the view that the youth of South Africa have of the agricultural sector, was drawn up and completed by youths across all races and genders. Regarding the geographical location of the respondents, they were from three provinces: Gauteng, the Eastern Cape and the Western Cape. The results obtained from the questionnaire indicate that black youth do not have an interest in agriculture and that they are not aware of the various career opportunities that exist in the sector. It is evident that the required shift in the minds of the youth will not happen overnight and, in the interim, poverty and unemployment remain prevalent amongst the black youth. However, it must be stressed that there are indeed many youths succeeding in agriculture – across the entire value chain. In the short term, more needs to be done regarding showcasing these success stories across all media platforms, not only for the youth, but more importantly for key stakeholders (e.g. development finance institutions, banks, agribusinesses, etc.) in the agricultural sector to take notice and play their part to empower the youth that are keen to become involved in agriculture. In the medium to long term, the departments of agriculture and of education (basic and higher) needs to invest in including agriculture in the syllabus of all public and private schools, and not just in the few dedicated agricultural schools in the country.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die volharding van landelike en stedelike armoede, die hernude belangstelling in die landbou en ’n sin van dringendheid met betrekking tot werksverskaffing aan jongmense is in die denke van beleidmakers en professionele ontwikkelaars verenig, in so ’n mate dat die landbousektor een van die sleutelsektore geword het in die soeke na antwoorde op die krisis van werkloosheid onder jongmense. Werkloosheid en armoede is vername probleme in ontwikkelende lande soos Suid-Afrika. Die probleem raak erger wanneer dit die jeug meer as ouer mense affekteer, aangesien die jeug die toekoms van enige land uitmaak. Die swart jeug van Suid-Afrika is hoogs verarm en is werkloos. Hoë werkloosheid, veral onder die jeug, en hoë vlakke van armoede te midde van die swak ekonomiese groei wat Suid-Afrika ervaar, dui daarop dat daar geen inklusiewe groei in die land was nie en dat die samelewing baie ongelyk bly. Die landbousektor is ’n sektor wat die swart jeug (en die jeug oor die algemeen) nie beskou as een wat hulle uit hulle armoede en werkloosheid kan lig nie. Die waarheid is egter dat die landbousektor meer as bekwaam genoeg is om ordentlike werk (en selfwerksaamheid) te skep en om armoede onder die swart jeug van Suid-Afrika te verlig. In die nastreef van ekonomiese groei en omdat die meeste werksgeleenthede in die stedelike gebiede is (wat lei tot verstedeliking), moet die landbousektor en landelike gebiede nie verwaarloos word nie. In plaas daarvan moet Suid-Afrika verseker dat die landbousektor en landelike gemeenskappe gelyktydig ontwikkel word sodat die rye stedelike werkloses verminder word en mense ordentlike werk in die landbousektor in landelike ekonomieë verkry. Deur middel van goeie infrastruktuur sal die landbousektor nie net in die landelike ekonomie en primêre sektor bly nie, maar sal dit ook deel vorm van die stedelike ekonomie en die sekondêre sektor (landbouverwerking). Dít is ’n noodsaaklike skakel vir enige ekonomie soos die narratief verander: vanaf plattelandse bewoners wat die stedelike gebiede invaar om lae-betalende werk te kry en in stedelike krotbuurte (plakkershutte) te woon, tot plattelandse bewoners wat slegs in die stedelike gebiede is vanweë hulle beweging binne die landbou-waardeketting (vanaf primêre produksie tot landbou-verwerking). Dit sal verseker dat armoede in stedelike gebiede, wat gereeld oor die hoof gesien word wanneer sekere statistiese opnames gedoen word, ook in ag geneem word. Daar is baie werklose en verarmde mense in stedelike gebiede omdat die kanse om ordentlike werk te kry, groter is in stedelike as in landelike gebiede. Wat groot kommer wek is dat, vanuit ’n landbouperspektief, die landelike gebiede met bewerkbare grond verlate bly omdat daar niemand is om die land te bewerk nie. Hierdie studie fokus op twee aspekte: eerstens, die belangrikheid van deelname deur die jeug in die landbousektor, gegewe die sektor se belangrikheid in billike ekonomiese groei, en dan kyk dit ook na beleide en prosesse wat benodig word om hierdie probleem aan te spreek. ’n Vraelys wat gefokus het op die vasstelling van die Suid-Afrikaanse jeug se sienings van die landbousektor is opgestel en voltooi deur jongmense van alle rasse en geslagte. Met betrekking tot die geografiese ligging van die respondente was hulle afkomstig van drie provinsies: Gauteng, die Oos-Kaap en die Wes-Kaap. Die resultate van die vraelys toon dat die swart jeug nie in die landbou belangstel nie en dat hulle nie bewus is van die verskillende loopbaangeleenthede wat in die sektor bestaan nie. Dit is duidelik dat die vereiste skuif in die denke van die jeug nie oornag sal plaasvind nie en armoede en werkloosheid sal dus in die interim algemeen bly onder die swart jeug. Dit moet egter benadruk word dat daar wel baie jongmense is wat sukses behaal in die landbou – oor die hele waardeketting heen. In die korttermyn moet meer gedoen word om hierdie sukses stories op alle mediaplatforms te vertoon – nie net vir die jeug nie, maar belangriker nog dat sleutelbelanghebbers (bv. instellings wat ontwikkelingsfinansiering verskaf, banke, landboubesighede, ens.) in die landbousektor kennis neem en hulle rol speel om die jeug te bemagtig wat gretig is om in die landbou betrokke te raak. In die medium- tot langtermyn moet die departemente van landbou en van onderwys (basies en hoër) daarin belê om landbou in die sillabus van alle openbare en privaatskole in te sluit, en nie net in die paar toegewyde landbouskole in die land nie.af_ZA
dc.format.extentix, 101 pages ; illustrations, includes annexures
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectAgriculture -- Economic aspects -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectRural development -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectUnemployment -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectPoverty -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectEquality -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectEconomic development -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTD
dc.titlePromoting agriculture amongst the black youth of South Africa : the role the sector has to play in creating employment, alleviating poverty, and achieving equitable economic growthen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.description.versionMastersen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


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